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Connect to Electronic Resources through LEO
by Reba Leiding


Did you know that LEO, the library catalog, is a major gateway to new electronic formats in JMU library collections?  You probably already know you can use LEO to search for many types of materials besides books, including videos, sound recordings, music scores, government documents, and manuscripts. LEO now contains links to five major types of electronic monographs:  e-books (including e-reference books and JMU e-theses), streaming videos (e-videos), e-graphics, streaming audio (e-audio), and e-scores.  Close to 90,000 electronic monographs have been added to LEO to date, with another 30,000 to be added by the end of October, 2007. 

You may be asking:  what’s a monograph?  Don’t feel uncomfortable if you aren’t sure.  Librarians also struggle to define what exactly is a monograph in these times of electronic, non-tangible formats.  A monograph can be defined as “a non-serial work, complete in one part or set.”  A book is usually a monograph; so usually is a DVD. 

E-books:  The type of e-monograph people are likely to think of first are e-books that are digital versions of print works. For instance, close to 32,000 multi-subject titles from the e-book distributor eBrary are included in LEO, as are around 470 reference e-books from publishers such as Blackwell, Gale, and Oxford.  E-books from Safari Tech Books Online can also be found on LEO. This is a leased collection of over 1,200 technology-related titles from well-known publishers such as O’Reilly and Microsoft; titles are rotated out and new ones added periodically to keep the collection timely.  

Due to the tens of thousands of e-books in LEO, the keyword "e-books" should be combined with a word or phrase on your topic to limit the number of results.  For example, try a search for e-books and photoshop.

Screen shot of LeoYou also can find these e-book collections and more through the Research Databases link on the Library’s web page.


Primary sources in LEO: Letters, diaries, broadsides, and other historical documents may also be considered monographs.  In some disciplines these are known as primary sources.  Many of the individual titles that are part of several primary source collection, are available on LEO, such as African Writers Series, Empire Online (world colonial history: 1492-1062), American Civil War Letters and Diaries, Early Encounters in North America.

A keyword in LEO can lead you to these digitized primary sources.  For example, a keyword search for "civil war” and correspondence yields over 150 records for works on that topic, some in print and some in electronic format.  You can limit the results to electronic format only by adding the search term e-books.  (Note: when you are entering your terms in the LEO keyword search box, you do not need to use " " marks around the term "e-books" or other single-word terms; use quotes around multi-word terms to search them as a phrase.)

Streaming audio and e-scores are two newer electronic formats now becoming available in LEO.

Mozart sheet musicE-scores: This is the newest type of electronic format added to LEO.  JMU Libraries now has access to the Neue Mozart Ausgabe, or New Mozart Edition, which includes the musical text and critical commentary in digital form to the entire catalog of Mozart’s works.  Simply do a title search in LEO for “new Mozart edition” to find a link to the electronic collection; or your can do a keyword search in LEO combining e-scores and Mozart.

Streaming audio:  Over 4,000 streaming audio titles from the Naxos Music Library are also linked through LEO, with additional titles scheduled to be added on a periodic basis.  Most of the Naxos Music Library consists of classical music, but it also contains smaller, eclectic collections of jazz, folk, contemporary, pop and rock, and Chinese music (Naxos is based in Hong Kong).  To connect to streaming audio of Barber’s “Adagio for strings,” for example, you can do a keyword search in LEO combining e-audio and Barber and “adagio for strings."

Because there is a delay after new titles are added to Naxos Music Library before their records become available in LEO, we recommend that you also search the database directly, through the Research Databases link on the Library’s web page.  Also, you can use this link to search other streaming audio collections that are not yet available via LEO.

Streaming video: Over 1,500 streaming video programs are now available through LEO.  The streaming video pilot project began in Fall, 2004 with about 100 videos from the Films for the Humanities and Sciences.  Libraries and Educational Technologies’ goal was to offer video programming “on demand” in the way that other networking information are made available.  Since then, many more titles have been added as well as titles from other video distributors, including Annenberg Media, PBS, and WGBH.  To find the entire list of streaming video titles, use a keyword search in LEO for the term “e-videos.”  To find streaming videos on a particular topic, combine that search with one or more keywords, for example e-video and communication.

Media Resources also provides easy-to-follow instructions page for finding online videos.

The streaming video project is the result of collaboration across the L&ET organization, as well as with JMU Information Technology unit.  Adding streaming videos to library collections is a multi-step process, starting with Media Resources.  Some films were already in the collection in video or DVD format.  Staff in Media Resources negotiated streaming rights with the film publishers for those titles already owned, and initiated purchase of new titles.  In some cases, the new video titles were licensed in electronic form only, and no tangible copy resides in the circulating collection.  In other cases, staff in Media Resources or the Center for Instructional Technology (CIT) create a digital file from the DVD or tape, or from an “archival copy” provided by the publisher.  CIT staff load the digital files on the Madison Digital Image Database (MDID), an image repository that is another means for accessing the streaming video collection.  As a last link in the chain, the Libraries’ cataloging unit adds the video’s record and a direct link to the electronic version of the video. Faculty can insert this link into their BlackBoard courses.

MDID Screen shot

The link in the LEO record takes you to the MDID authentication page, where you are asked to enter your JMU eID and password.  You are then directed to the MDID record (example above), which provides the two streaming options for viewing, depending on the type of connection available:  a 500k option is for fast on-campus connections, and a 300k option is available for off-campus broadband connections such as cable and DSL.  Modem connections will not work. Members of the JMU community who want to view a streaming video will need to download the current version of QuickTime to their computer. 

A download option is also available for many program titles (depending on rights granted by the publisher), but is limited to faculty only. The download option provides extra flexibility in classroom use: an  even higher quality version especially suitable for viewing on a large screen.  The download option is not streamed, meaning there is a delay until the entire file is downloaded before it can be viewed.  Further instructions for downloading are available on the MDID record.

E-graphics:   LEO now provides access to over 20,000 electronic graphics.  These titles include posters; broadsides (single sheets publicizing public notices, advertisements, news, speeches and words to songs – usually without music); pictures and other 2-dimensional non-projected media.  To find e-graphics on a particular topic, combine that search with one or more keywords, for example, e-graphics and crime.

The table below outlines how to search for electronic resources in LEO using keyword searches.  Combine the word for the information type (such as e-books) along with your search term or phrase.

To retrieve full texts, video, audio or graphics on the Internet using LEO:

Type in the Keyword search box (examples):


E-books, either by author or topic;
i.e., e-books + author OR
       e-books + topic

e-books and psycholinguistics ;
e-books and hemingway ;
e-books and “new zealand” ;
e-books and courtiers and 16th century

Online JMU doctoral dissertations  (Psychology and Communication Sciences & Disorders only) + author or topic

e-theses and “auditory perception”

E-reference books about your topic, etc.
i.e., dictionaries and encyclopedias online

e-reference and “animal behavior” ;
e-reference and medicine

Streaming videos (e-videos) + topic/performer/producer, etc.

e-videos and “Ken Burns”
e-videos and Iraq

Streaming audio (e-audio) +
performance medium/composer, title, etc.

e-audio and violin ;
e-audio and “caro mio ben” ;
e-audio and bartok

E-graphics  (posters, broadsides, circulars,
pictures, etc.) +  topic

e-graphics and “world war”


For more information about streaming videos, contact Jeff Clark in Media Resources.  For more information about streaming audio, contact Brian Cockburn in the Music Library. If you have questions about e-books, contact your liaison librarian.

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