Genealogy

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Genealogy is the study of ancestry or family lineage. The genealogist usually records lines of descent by a pedigree chart or family tree. Genealogy is as old as recorded history, e.g. the Bible chronicles family lineage in both the Old and New Testaments, and royalty lines are noted in the annals of the ancient Sumerian, Babylonian, etc. empires. Although scholars have historical interest in genealogy most genealogists record their own families. Genealogical societies abound today. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS) has centralized in Salt Lake City the most comprehensive collection of genealogy source materials available in the world. This resource can be tapped locally through Family History Centers at many LDS Churches. Genealogy and history are intertwined. The genealogist must understand such areas as religious and social history, economic aspects of a given time period, and even geographic entities and their political and name changes over a period of time. This handout is designed for the genealogist using Carrier Library. The arrangement is by type of source material. Sources are included that are guides to genealogy which provide background information on using the various tools of genealogical research. Unless noted, the genealogist must be aware this handout lists only Carrier Library holdings. Various libraries, or other types of repositories, must also be used to complete one's research project. In the immediate area of Carrier Library several libraries have strong holdings of varying types of genealogical materials. These include the libraries of Bridgewater College, Eastern Mennonite University, Massanutten Regional Library, and the library at the Harrisonburg-Rockingham Historical Society.


Table of Contents


Subject Headings - Leonardo

The following subject heading are examples of ones useful in locating published materials dealing with all aspects of genealogical research. Carrier Library, and most academic libraries follow the Library of Congress subject headings. Other types of libraries used may utilize other subject heading plans. In addition to the examples listed here you can use the Library of Congress Subject Headings volumes located near the online catalog terminals to determine other subject headings. Family and individual names can be entered into the online catalog without being listed in the subject heading books.

Church of the Brethren (example of a religion/denomination)
Emigration and immigration
Genealogy
German Americans - Genealogy (example of a class or ethnicgroup)
Harrisonburg (Va.) - Genealogy (example of a city entry)
Heraldry
Land grants
Lee, Robert Edward, 1807-1870 (example of an individual name entry)
Lee family (family name entry)
Libraries - Special collections - Genealogy
Names, Personal
Obituaries
Oral history
Registers of births, etc.
Ships - Passenger lists
United States - Census (example of a country and census entries)
United States - Genealogy (example of a country and genealogy entries)
United States - Hisory, Local
Virginia - Genealogy (example of a state and genealogy entries)

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Guides

Guides are sources used for an overview on genealogy and how to perform research in this area. Guides frequently contain bibliographies. They also note major sources of materials that may be available only where originally produced. The Cerny title is useful for learning how to use Latter Day Saints genealogical resources. Szucs is the best current scholarly overall guide to American genealogical research.

Andrews, Charles M. Guide to the Manuscript Materials for the History of the United States to 1783 in the British Museum, in Minor London Archives, and in the Libraries of Oxford and Cambridge. Washington, D.C.: The Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1908. (Library of American Civilization LAC 12427).
A guide to the American Colonial era. This is a guide to manuscripts mainly from Great Britain.

Andrews, Charles M. Guide to the Materials for American History, to 1783 in the Public Record Office of Great Britain. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1912-1914. 2 vol. (Library of American Civilization LAC 20779).
This is a guide to the American Colonial era. Some of the records have been reproduced and are available in the United States. The originals are in major European repositories, especially in Great Britain.

Carmack, Sharon D. A Genealogist's Guide to Discovering Your Female Ancestors: Special Strategies for Uncovering Hard-to-Find Information About Your Female Lineage. Cincinnati: Betterway Books, 1998. (Ref CS 14 C38 1998).
This guide looks at the records and sources that are useful for locating information on female ancestors. Chapters are on topics as sources created by women, sources created about women, etc. One chapter is a case study on locating records on one individual. Appendices include an overview of women's legal rights in America, matrilineal research and genetics, and a checklist for researching female ancestors. A comprehensive bibliography completes the guide.

Cerny, Johni, and Elliott, Wendy, ed. The Library: a Guide to the LDS Family History Library. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1988. (Ref CS 47 L4 1988).
A guide to the premier genealogy library in the world. Following an overview to using the Library there are chapters on the U.S. collection followed by regional discussions. A separate foreign country and region unit completes the volume.

Colwell, Stella. Family Roots: Discovering the Past in the Public Record Office. Rutland, Ver.: Charles E. Tuttle, 1991. (Ref CS 21 C64 1991).
A comprehensive look at the British office of vital statistics. About one half of the book is a series of chapters describing examples of family history research. Biblography.

Cox, Jane. Tracing Your Ancestors in the Public Record Office. 4th ed. London: HMSO, 1990. (Ref CS 16 C692 1990).
A detailed guide to official British records. Arranged by type of record. A final chapter has addresses of organizations useful to the genealogist.

Doane, Gilbert H. Searching for Your Ancestors: the How and Why of Genealogy. 5th ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1980. (CS 16 D6 1980).
Early chapters discuss how to begin the genealogy research process. Material is included on using libraries, wills, cemeteries, etc. Chapters on ethnic and foreign research are provided. Appendices include a bibliography, state offices having vital statistics, and some census information.

Eichholz, Alice, ed. Red Book: American State, County & Town Sources. 3rd. ed. Provo, Utah: Ancestry, 2004. (Ref CS 49 R44 2004).
Arranged by state, this guide gives a background of state history of interest to the genealogist. A discussion of vital and legal records is presented. County sources, along with their held records and dates of coverage, are furnished.

Greenwood, Val D. The Researcher's Guide to American Genealogy. 3rd ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 2000. (Ref CS 47 G73 2000).
Scholarly presentation discussing both how to do genealogical research and the specific records used. Contains tables and examples.

Grundset, Eric G. American Genealogical Research at the DAR Washington, D.C.. Washington, D.C.: National Society Daughters of the American Revolution, 1997. (CS 16 G68 1997).
This excellent guide discusses all aspects of doing research at the DAR Library and Archives. The discussion includes who can use the collection, costs, and how to cite sources from their collections.

The Handy Book for Genealogists: United States of America. 9th ed. Logan, Utah: Everton Publishers, 1999. (Ref CS 47 H36 1999).
Arranged by state this guide has for each of the states a brief history, important libraries and archives, printed sources, and county and city information. Appendices include county maps by state, a list of migration trails and maps, canals to 1850, and early railroads.

Hogan, Roseann R. Kentucky Ancestry: A Guide to Genealogical and Historical Research . Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1992. (F 450 H64 1992).
An excellent resource for Kentucky genealogical research. Among the chapters are topics on women, African Americans, secondary sources, etc. One chapter details in an inventory microfilmed county historical records. Appendices include a bibliography, county boundary maps, etc.

Humling, Virginia, comp. U.S. Catholic Sources: a Diocesan Research Guide. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1995. (Ref CD 3065 H86 1995).
Arranged by state and then diocese this guide describes the church sources of interest to genealogy. Information includes a brief history of the diocese along with their basic holdings. Information is provided on charges.

Humphrey, John T. Understanding and Using Baptismal Records Washington, D.C.: Humphrey Publications, 1996. (CD 3065 H87 1996).
This study gives an overview of baptism and record keeping. It is useful especially for its discussion of "problems" regarding locating baptismal records for some groups.

Leary, Helen F.M., ed. North Carolina Research: Genealogy and Local History. Raleigh, N.C.: North Carolina Genealogical Society, 1996. 2nd ed. (Ref CS 49 N67 1996).
Although this is a guide to North Carolina genealogy it is an excellent source as an overall guide to genealogy research. Arranged topically. Comprehensive.

McGinnis, Carol. West Virginia Genealogy: Sources & Resources. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1988. (Ref F 240 M36 1988).
This is a guide to the sources available in West Virginia and not a "how to" book. The guide is arranged by type of materials headlined by vital records. Appendices include bibliographies, inventory to the Historical Records Survey Archives, and to West Virginian's filing Civil War damage claims.

Meyerink, Kory L., ed. Printed Sources: A Guide to Published Genealogical Records. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1998. (Ref CS 9 P75 1998).
This is the standard guide for printed genealogical sources. It is a companion guide to Szucs "The Source..." (noted below). Sections include printed original records and compiled records.

Mullins, Edward L. C. Texts and Calendars; an Analytical Guide to Serial Publications. London: Royal Historical Society, 1958. (Ref DA 25 M8).
Guide to English and Welsh historical records. Arranged by government offices, national societies, and English and Welsh societies.

Moore, Dahrl E. The Librarian's Genealogy Notebook: A Guide to Resources. Chicago: American Library Association, 1998. (Ref CS 9 M66 1998).
Written for use by librarian's as a guide in working with genealogists. Following brief chapters on introducing genealogy and what library service is there are chapters on the major components a genealogist would need in a library. Written at an introductory level.

The National Union Catalog, Pre-1956 Imprints; a Cumulative Author List Representing Library of Congress Printed Cards and Titles Reported by Other American Libraries. London: Mansell, 1968-1980. 685 vol. (Biblio Z 881 A1 U372).
The most valuable source for verifying the existance of books published anywhere in the world up to 1956. All languages.

Neagles, James C. The Library of Congress: a Guide to Genealogical and Historical Research. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1990. (Ref E 180 N4 1990).
Comprehensive guide, with annotated bibliography, of one of the leading genealogical libraries in the United States. Arrangement includes topical, e.g. military service, and geographic, e.g. Virginia.

Parker, J. Carlyle. Going to Salt Lake City to Do Family History Research. 3rd ed. rev. & exp. Turlock, Calif.: Marietta Publishing Co., 1996. (CS 47 P37 1996)
This excellent guide introduces the book with a long discussion on "Before You Go." This presentation is useful for genealogists whether they go to Salt Lake City or not. The main portion of the book discusses all aspects of research and living while at Salt Lake City.

Parker, J. Carlyle. Library Service for Genealogists. Detroit: Gale Research, 1981. (Ref CS 9 U5 P37 1981).
Written for librarian's in their work on developing a genealogy collection. Useful for the genealogist because the sources listed are the important titles for libraries. Comprehensive.

Pine, Leslie G. American Origins. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1971 reprint of the 1960 ed. (CS 16 P55 1971).
A scholarly, historical, introduction to genealogical research. The emphasis is on European antecedents. Arrangement is by country.

Reese, Margaret C., comp. A Guide to Genealogical Materials in the Waynesboro Public Library. Waynesboro, Va.: Margaret C. Reese, 1979. (Ref CS 69 R4).
Example of the genealogical holdings in an area library.

Sankey, Michael L. Public Records Online: the National Guide to Private & Government Online Sources of Public Records. 4th ed. Tempe, Ariz.: Facts on Demand Press, 2003. (JK 468 P76 P83 2003).
A comprehensive look at online sources of public records. This guide was not published for genealogists but some of the information is useful. One chapter looks at how to locate court records. Internet addresses are covered.

Schaefer, Christina K. The Center: A Guide to Genealogical Research in the National Capital Area. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1996. (Ref CS 49 S34 1996).
Information about hundreds of libraries and other repositories in the Washington, D.C. area. The National Archives and Library of Congress are featured. Some parts are arranged by type of research material.

Schaefer, Christina K. Genealogical Encyclopedia of the Colonial Americas: A Complete Digest of the Records of All Countries of the Western Hemisphere. Baltimore: Genealogial Publishing, 1998. (Ref E 18 S32 1998).
This guide offers extensive information on the major colonial sources. It is arranged by country and for the present United States by colony. Information examples include statewide records, county records, a bibliography of suggested readings, available computer resources, etc. A final section discusses religious groups and colonial sources in several European countries.

Schaefer, Christina K. The Hidden Half of the Family: A Sourcebook for Women's Genealogy. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1999. (Ref CS 14 S33 1999).
This guide is introduced by a discussion of major types of records that contain information on women. The bulk of the guide is arranged by state with a discussion of the state's history and sources of records.

Szucs, Loretto D. The Source: a Guidebook of American Genealogy. 3rd ed. Provo, Utah: Ancestry, 2006. (Ref CS 49 S65 2006).
This outstanding guide is the standard source for both the beginner and experienced genealogist. Comprehensive coverage is given in this scholarly work. Chapters, with bibliographies, cover all areas of research. Sections on ethnic genealogy and use of the computer are provided.

United States. National Archives and Records Administration. American Indians: a Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. [2nd ed.]. Washington, D.C.: The Archives, 1995. (Ref E 77 N38 1995).
A detailed guide to records held by the National Archives. A description of each Record Group series is provided. Records of interest for the genealogist include special Indian censuses.

United States. National Archives and Records Administration. Getting Started: Beginning Your Genealogical Research in the National Archives in Washington. Washington, D.C.: The Archives, 1987. (Gov Doc AE1.102:G28).
Brief discussion of the types of records at the National Archives and how to access them.

United States. National Archives and Records Administration. Guide to the National Archives of the United States. Washington, D. C.: The Archives, 1987. (CD 3023 U53 1987).
General guide to all records available in the National Archives.

United States. National Archives and Records Service. Guide to Genealogical Research in the National Archives. 3rd ed. Washington, D. C.: The Archives, 2000. (Ref CS 68 U5 U54 2000).
Outstanding work, comprehensive in its coverage. Arrangement is by type of archival record. Useful for its indepth discussion of the records and how they fit into genealogical research.

United States. National Archives Trust Fund Board. Genealogical and Biographical Research: a Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington, D. C.: The Archives, 1983. (Ref CS 47 U54 1983b).
Guide, with Archives Record Group numbers and microfilm reel numbers, to the major National Archives holdings having genealogical research interest.

United States. National Historical Publications Commission. A Guide to Archives and Manuscripts in the United States. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University, 1961. (Ref CD 3022 A45).
An older guide to historical records repositories. Includes material of interest to the genealogist. Excellent index. Cited as Hamer.

University of Virginia. Library. Virginia Genealogy: a Guide to Resources in the University of Virginia Library. Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1983. ( F 225 U57 1983).
Guide to the holdings of a major academic genealogical collection. A section on general sources is followed by units on foreign, United States, and Virginia genealogy.

Westin, Jeane. Finding Your Roots: How Every American Can Trace His Ancestors, at Home and Abroad. Los Angeles:J. P. Tarcher, 1977. (CS 16 W46 1977).
A useful guide for the beginning genealogist. The discussion includes roots abroad and National Archives records. A final chapter discusses publishing the family history. Appendices include a directory of key libraries and organizations, genealogy publishers, map sources, and immigrant passenger lists.

Wright, Raymond S., III. The Genealogist's Handbook: Modern Methods for Researching Family History. Chicago: American Library Association, 1995. (CS 9 W74 1995).
An excellent guide giving an overview to the full process. Chapters include areas of getting started, computers and genealogy, family records. local records, national records, and writing a family history. One of the best guides currently available.

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Bibliographies

Bibliographies are useful for locating additional sources on a given family or historical time period/geographic area. The Kaminow edited bibliographies offer comprehensive coverage of available genealogies. The Library of Congress attempts to obtain all genealogies. Their National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections provides comprehensive coverage of manuscript genealogies. Their Newspapers in Microform:... attempt to list all newspapers, internationally, that have been microfilmed. Bibliographies will be located in many sources found throughout this handout. They should be sought after, and expected, in most scholarly sources used.

The American Genealogist, Being a Catalogue of Family Histories. A Bibliography of American Genealogy or a List of the Title Pages of Books and Pamphlets on Family History, Published in America, From 1771 to Date. Reprint of the fifth ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1971 reprint. (CS 42.7 A7 1971)
A bibliography of books and pamphlets published prior to 1900 that are devoted to a single family. Alphabetically arranged.

Bibliographic Index. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1937- . (Stacks - Abstract/Index).
Continual updating of bibliographic sources. Includes some genealogical sources. A database entitled Bibliographic Index Plus is available. This offers coverage from 1982 to date.

Daughters of the American Revolution. Library Catalog: National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Volume one: Family Histories and Genealogies. Washington, D.C.: The Society, 1983. 2nd rev. ed. (CS 16 D38 1983).
Arranged alphabetically by surname this lists genealogies in the DAR library. Author and surname indexes.

Filby, P. William, comp. American & British Genealogy & Heraldry: a Selected List of Books. 2nd ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1975 (Ref CS 47 F55 1975).
Comprehensive, scholarly, listing of over 5100 entries. The annotated citations are arranged by country, region, and state.

Filby, P. William, comp. A Bibliography of American County Histories. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1985. (Ref E 180 F54 1985).
Major histories only. Arranged by state and county.

Genealogical & Local History Books in Print. 4th ed. [Springfield, Va.: n.p.], 1985. irregular. (CS 47 U5 G45).
A books in print to genealogical and local history publications. Includes family histories that individuals wish to submit even if they are typescript copies. Includes ordering information. The titles are arranged by type of book, e.g. computers, medical, etc., and by state.

Genealogical & Local History Books in Print. 5th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1996-1997. 4 vol. (CS 47 U5 G45 1996).
This series continues, and builds upon, the 4th edition.

Huffer, Donna, comp. Bibliography of Genealogy and Local History Collections of the Staunton Public Library. Staunton, Va.: Staunton Public Library, 1994. (Ref CS 16 A8 1994).
The bibliography is arranged by call number.

Index to American Genealogies and to Genealogical Material Contained in all Works as Town Histories, County Histories, Local Histories, Historical Society Publications, Biographies, Historical Periodicals, and Kindred Works. Baltimore: reprinted for Clearfield Company by Genealogical Publishing Co., 1997. (Ref CS 47 I53 1997).
Originally published in 1900 with a supplement in 1908 by Joel Munsell's Sons. Arranged alphabetically by surname this index lists published sources of genealogical data. To determine the actual title of the published source you must use Munsell's work The American Genealogist. This is available in Carrier Library @ Ref CS 42.7 A7 1971.

Jacobus, Donald L. Index to Genealogical Periodicals Together with "My Own Index." Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1997 reprint of the 1932, 1948, and 1953 ed. (Ref CS 47 I537 1997).
This work was originally published in three volumes between 1932 and 1953. For each volume there are name, and place, indexes. Each volume includes a list of periodicals indexed. This source is most strong on New England and other northern areas of the United States. The author states in his preface that Swem's Virginia Historical Index covers much of that state's periodical endeavors. This is an excellent source for each periodical sources. See also the Periodical Source Index (PERSI).

Kamikow, Marion J., comp. A Complement to Genealogies in the Library of Congress: a Bibliography. Baltimore: Magna Carta, 1981. (Ref CS 47 U532).
This lists additional bibliographies not available in the Library of Congress genealogies (also compiled by Kaminow) that are available in twenty-four other American libraries.

Kamikow, Marion J., comp. Genealogies in the Library of Congress; a Bibliography. Baltimore: Magna Carta, 1972. 2 vol. (Ref CS 47 U53).
This is the main title of bibliographies at the Library of Congress. Arranged alphabetically by family name. Supplements are available in 1977 and 1987 at the same call number.

Kamikow, Marion J., ed. United States Local Histories in the Library of Congress: a Bibliography. Baltimore: Magna Carta, 1975. 5 vol. (E 180 U59 1975).
Monumental bibliography listing the vast holdings of the Library of Congress. Arrangement is by Library of Congress call number. Comprehensive.

Kemp, Thomas J. The 1995 Genealogy Annual: A Bibliography of Published Sources. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1996. (CS 42.7 K45 1996).
The first of a planned annual title. Kemp's bibliography features a listing of new family histories. This followed by a topical listing of United States genealogy sources. International and United States states sources complete the work.

Library of Congress. Genealogies Cataloged by the Library of Congress Since 1986: With a List of Established Forms of Family Names and a List of Genealogies Converted to Microform Since 1983. Washington, D. C.: The Library, 1992. (Ref CS 47 L53 1992).
This volume updates the earlier volumes edited by Marion Kaminkow. Comprehensive coverage of published genealogies.

The National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1959/61-1993. (Ref-Biblio Z 6620 U5 N3).
An ongoing work which lists manuscript holdings throughout the United States. Genealogies and family histories are included. Beginning in 1986 and continuing to date NUCMC is available as an electronic text @ <http://www.loc.gov/coll/nucmc/>.

PERiodical Source Index 1847-1985. Fort Wayne, Ind.: Allen County Public Library Foundation, 1988-1995. 16 vol. (CS 1 P47 1988).
A major work from the collections of a major genealogy library. Over 4,000 journals have been indexed. Most are American titles but Canadian and some European journals are included. The five categories of places (U.S.), Canadian places, other foreign places, research methology (record type), and families (by surname) are indexed. This is a vitally important bibliography source because of its years of coverage and the depth of indexing.

Sealock, Richard B. Bibliography of Place-Name Literature: United States and Canada. 3rd ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982. (Ref Z 6824 S4 1982).
Comprehensive coverage is provided in this annotated bibliography. Books, journal and newspaper articles, dissertations, manuscripts, documents, etc. are included in the 4830 citations. Arranged by state and Canadian province.

United States. Library of Congress. Geography and Map Division. Fire Insurance Maps in the Library of Congress. Washington, D. C.: The Library, 1981. (Gov Doc LC5.2:F51).
A bibliography of ca. 700,000 maps in the United States, with a few in Cuba, Canada, and Mexico. Coverage is from 1867 to date. Arranged by state and city. Fire insurance maps have an interest to the genealogist for their portrayal of business, industrial, and residential areas of communities.

Writings on American History. Washington, D. C.: American Historical Association, 1902-1961. (Ref E 178 L331).
Never published 1941-1947. A cumulative index for 1902-1940 is available. Comprehensive indexing for American history from 1902-1961. Strong on local and family history.

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Dictionaries/Encyclopedias

Dictionaries and encyclopedias can offer brief facts and historical definitions of genealogical importance. The Langer and Morris encyclopedias furnish enough information to understand the key political, social, economic, etc. movements necessary for genealogical research. Some of these tools will have short bibliographies.

Bouvier, John. Bouvier's Law Dictionary and Concise Encyclopedia . St. Paul, Minn.: West Publishing Company, 1914. third revision (being the eighth edition). (KF 156 B669 1914a)
This law dictionary has interest for the genealogist because of its examples of early definitions that include legal aspects in genealogical work. Orginally published in 1839.

Dictionary of American History. 3rd ed. New York: Scribner, 2003. 10 vol. (Ref E 174 D52 2003).
Although individuals are generally not noted this can be valuable for its discussions of terms useful to the genealogist, e.g. land grants.

Drake, Paul. What Did They Mean By That? A Dictionary of Historical Terms for Genealogists. Bowie, Md.: Heritage Books, 1994-1998. 2 vol. (Ref CS 6 D73 1994).
Brief definitions. A list of abbreviations is provided.

Harris, Maurine, comp. Ancestry's Concise Genealogical Dictionary. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1989. (Ref CS 6 H37 1989).
An appendix contains a list of abbreviations useful to the genealogist.

Kane, Joseph N. The American Counties; Origins of Names, Dates of Creation and Organization, Area, Population, Historical Data, and Published Sources. 3rd ed. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow, 1972. (Ref E 180 K3 1972).
Brief description of each county. Includes information of research interest for the genealogist.

Ludlow, Daniel H., ed. Encyclopedia of Mormonism. New York: Macmillan, 1992. 5 vol. (Ref BX 8605.5 E62 1992).
This encyclopedia is useful to the genealogist because of its coverage of the various church sponsored activities on genealogy. There are many entries on genealogy, e.g. Family History Center and International Genealogical Index.

Morris, Richard B., ed. Encyclopedia of American History. 7th ed. New York: HarperCollins, 1996. (Ref E 174.5 M847 1996).
Useful in genealogical research to provide brief information on dates, events, etc.

Stearns, Peter N., ed. The Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged . 6th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. (Ref D 21 E578 2001).
Also available on a CD-ROM. This is the best source for brief information on world history. The book covers all time periods and geographic areas. Useful to the genealogist for its facts on specific events and their possible relationship to family history.

Thode, Ernest. German-English Genealogical Dictionary. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1992. (Ref CS 6 T48 1996).
Useful especially for its examples of German script writing this dictionary has examples of genealogical symbols, male and female names, numbers, etc. Extensive.

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European and Ethnic Sources

This section lists several key sources in European, (especially English), African-American, and Jewish genealogy. Most handout users will find these sources useful if they plan to extend their research to European/African antecedents.

Barrow, Geoffrey B., comp. The Genealogist's Guide. Chicago: American Library Association, 1977. (CS 414 B36 1977).
Index to British pedigrees and family histories covering the years 1950-1975.

Baxter, Angus. In Search of Your British & Irish Roots: a Complete Guide to Tracing Your English, Welsh, Scottish, and Irish Ancestors. 4th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1999. (Ref CS 414 B37 1991).
In addition to a discussion of individual British and Irish regions Baxter examines such topics as adoption, Mormon records, etc.

Baxter, Angus.In Search of Your Canadian Roots: Tracing Your Family Tree in Canada . Toronto, Canada: McClelland & Stewart, 1999. (CS 82 B39 1999).
In this guide Baxter discusses the various ethnic groups, e.g. Scots, and then presents the various provinces. Other chapters include topics as the National Archives, censuses, church records, etc.

Baxter, Angus. In Search of Your European Roots: a Complete Guide to Tracing Your Ancestors in Every Country in Europe. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1994. (Ref CS 403 B39 1994).
Arranged by country. Governmental units, spelling and language problems, and primary source materials are noted. Chapters on European Jewish records and LDS Church records are included.

Berry, Ellen T. Our Quaker Ancestors: Finding Them in Quaker Records. [Baltimore]: Genealogical Publishing, [1987]. (E 184 F89 B47 1987).
A guide to Quaker genealogy. Chapters include topics as migration, church organization, meeting records, etc.

Blockson, Charles L. Black Genealogy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1977. (CS 21 B55).
An emphasis on African roots, along with types of sources useful in American genealogy, is given. Appendices contain a directory of research sources arranged by state, a list of Black newspapers, and a bibliography.

Brandt, Edward R. Germanic Genealogy: A Guide to Worldwide Sources and Migration Patterns; with a Chapter on Computer Genealogy. 2nd ed. St. Paul, Minn.: Germanic Genealogy Society, 1997. (CS 614 G47 1997).
A comprehensive guide with twenty-three chapters discussing all areas of Germanic genealogy research. Maps and bibliographies are included. A major guide.

Carpenter, Cecelia S. How to Research American Indian Blood Lines: A Manual on Indian Genealogical Research. Bountiful, Utah: AGLL, 1994. (E 98 G44 C37 1994).
Following several chapters dealing with generally genealogical topics the author notes major libraries having Indian sources. This includes Federal records. Final chapters look at Indian materials to investigate and miscellaneous sources. Appendices include areas as bibliographies and guides, indexes, etc.

Cole, Trafford R. Italian Genealogical Records: How to Use Italian Civil, Ecclesiastical, & Other Records in Family History Research. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1995. (E 184 I8 C615 1995).
This is a comprehensive guide to Italian genealogy research. The book is divided into three major categories beginning with an overview of research including Italian history and the origin and meaning of surnames. A second section looks at the various available records. A final section discusses research methods.

Colletta, John P. Finding Italian Roots: The Complete Guide for Americans. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1996. (E 184 I8 C62 1996).
This guide looks at American records and how to use them. This includes census, ship, naturalization, and other records. Italian records are discussed with an emphasis on civil and religious records.

Cory, Kathleen B. Tracing Your Scottish Ancestry. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1996. (CS 464 C67 1996).
The author emphasizes research in Scotland, especially at the main record offices in Edinburgh. Appendices include areas as addresses, list of parishes, and "A Step by Step Guide" to doing Scottish research.

Currer-Briggs, Noel. Worldwide Family History. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982. (CS 9 C87 1982).
Discussion of European genealogy. Scholarly.

Finnell, Arthur L. Huguenot Genealogies: A Select Preliminary List. Baltimore: Clearfield Publishing, 1999. (E 184 H9 F56 1999).
This book is a bibliography of Huguenot genealogies published in the United States. It includes a number of sources from journal titles.

General Alphabetical Index to the Townland and Towns, Parishes, and Baronies of Ireland, Based on the Census of Ireland for the Year 1851. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 2000 reprint of the 1861 ed. (DA 979 G46 2000).
This source lists all townlands, towns, parishes and baronies in Ireland and provides the sheet number of ordance survey maps, number of acres, the county, etc. See also A New Genealogical Atlas of Ireland by Brian Mitchell under the Atlases/Gazetteers category in this handout for a source to use with this index.

Gibson, Jeremy S. W. Record Offices: How to Find Them. 4th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1989. (CD 1040 G53 1989).
Maps of record offices in England and Wales. There is brief information on each Office.

Hansen, Kevan M. Finding Your German Ancestors: A Beginners Guide. Orem, Utah: Ancestry, 1999. (E 184 G3 H2346 1999).
This is a short book discussing the processes in researching German genealogy.

Herber, Mark D. Ancestral Trails: the Complete Guide to British Genealogy and Family History. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1998. (Ref CS 414 H47 1997).
A comprehensive guide with chapters discussing all aspects of British genealogy. One chapter discusses Scottish, Welsh, Irish and some of the island groups genealogical problems and issues. Archives are highlighted.

Hey, David. The Oxford Guide to Family History. New York: Oxford University, 1993. (CS 9 H49 1993).
A guide to general family history from a British perspective. All examples, illustrations, etc. are British in origin. The guide is especially valuable for its description of the various available British records.

Irvine, Sherry. Your English Ancestry: a Guide for North Americans. rev.ed. (CS 415 I78 1998).
A scholarly guide with chapters on topics as census, civil registration, church records, wills, etc. Appendices include the Family History Center Catalog, the International Genealogical Index, Lord Hardwicke's Act, etc. Excellent bibliography.

Lawson, Sandra M., comp. Generations Past: a Selected List of Sources for Afro-American Genealogical Research. Washington, D. C.: Library of Congress, 1988. (Gov Doc LC1.12/2:Af8/4).
Bibliography of key sources held at the Library of Congress. The major portion of the book is arranged by state. Other types of material include bibliographies, periodicals, newspaper sources, etc.

Lewis, Samuel. A Topographical Dictionary of England.. 4 vol. in 2. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1996 reprint of the 1831 ed. (Ref DA 625 L676 1996).
Information for counties, parishes, towns, etc. are given. The attempt is to provide comprehensiveness. Folded maps are included.

Marshall, George W. The Genealogist's Guide. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, [1967] reprint of the 1903 ed. [4th ed.]. (Ref CS 414 M42 1967).
Lists, by family name, published genealogies. British.

Masterson, Josephine. Ireland: 1841/1851 Census Abstracts (Republic of Ireland) and Ireland: 1841/1851 Census Abstracts (Northern Ireland). Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1999. (CS 448 A1 M37 1999 and CS 448 A1 M372 1999).
This work is in two separate volumes as noted in the separate titles and call numbers. The volumes print census information that is available in a variety of sources.

Moulton, Joy W. Genealogical Resources in English Repositories. Columbus, Ohio, Hampton House, 1988. (CS 414 M68 1988).
Moulton has detailed information arranged by greater London repositories, county repositories, and London borough repositories. Appendices include other repositories and genealogical societies, addresses, and maps. An excellent sources to determine where genealogical records are located in England and what records are available.

Ouimette, David S. Finding Your Irish Ancestors: A Beginner's Guide. Provo, Utah: Ancestry Publishing,2005. (CS 483 O95 2005)
This guide contains a lot of illustrations and examples of documents for Irish genealogy. Following chapters on the types of sources theres are sections on Internet sites, Family History Centers, archives and libraries, etc.

Owen, Dolores B. Guide to Genealogical Resources in the British Isles. Metuchen, N. J.: Scarecrow, 1989. (CS 434 O8 1989).
A comprehensive listing of libraries and other organizations having genealogical materials. Especially useful for the American researcher in that key publications for each institution are listed.

Platt, Lyman D. Hispanic Surnames and Family History. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1996. (CS 2745 P55 1996).
This guide is a major source for information on Hispanic surnames. Following a discussion on surnames there are chapters in areas as research sources, available histories on surnames, a list of personal and surnames, etc.

Pratt, David H. Researching British Probates, 1354-1858: a Guide to the Microfilm Collection of the Family History Library. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1992. (CS 434 P737 1992).
A guide to probates, wills, administration bonds, inventories, etc. Published in four volumes covering the several English regions.

Reid, Judith P., comp.Family Ties in England, Scotland, Wales, & Ireland: Sources for Genealogical Research. Washington, D. C.: Library of Congress, 1988. (Gov Doc LC 1.2:F21).
This is a bibliography of major sources on the several ethnic groups that are available in the Library of Congress. Useful to genealogists for its listing of key sources on these European peoples.

Reilly, James R. Richard Griffith and His Valuations of Ireland with an Inventory of the Books of the General Valuation of Rateable Property in Ireland Conducted Under 9 & 10 Vict. c. 110 of 1846 and 15 & 16 Vict. c. 63 of 1852. Baltimore: Clearfield, reprint ed. 2000. (Ref DA 950.23 G75 R45 2000).
A discussion and background information on Griffith's Valuations of Ireland is presented. This provides information of early and mid-nineteenth century sources having genealogical value.

Rottenberg, Dan. Finding Our Fathers: a Guidebook to Jewish Genealogy. New York: Random House, 1977. (Ref CS 21 R58).
A scholarly work that discusses Biblical records and sources both in the United States and Israel.

Rowlands, John. Welsh Family History: A Guide to Research. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1994. (CS 453 W48 1994).
A comprehensive guide to Welsh family history.

Ryan, James G. Irish Records: Sources for Family & Local History. [rev. ed.]. [Salt Lake City]: Ancestry, 1997. (CS 483 R83 1997).
Comprehensive guide to Irish genealogical research. Arranged by county. Important for its coverage of parish records.

Ryskamp, George R. Finding Your Hispanic Roots. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1997. (Ref CS 943 R97 1997)
A comprehensive guide to Hispanic genealogical research. Examples of chapters include LDS Family History Centers, tracing Hispanic immigrants in theUnited States, church records, census records, etc.

Smith, Clifford N. American Genealogical Resources in German Archives (AGRIGA): a Handbook. Munchen: Verlag Dokumentation, 1977. (E 184 G3 S659).
Arranged by family name and geographic (German) area.

Smith, Clifford N. Encyclopedia of German-American Genealogical Research. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1976. (E 184 G3 S66).
Sections discussing religious bodies in America, language/spelling problems, genealogical research in Germany, Jews in Germany, and German-American genealogy are available.

Smith, Jessie C., ed. Ethnic Genealogy: a Research Guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1983. (Ref CS 49 E83 1983).
Scholarly study of general genealogy records with chapters on American Indians, Asian-Americans, African-Americans, and Hispanic-Americans.

Thackery, David T. African American Ancestors: A Beginner's Guide. Provo, Utah: Ancestry Publishing, 2000. (E 185.96 T425 2000)
The author lists, and describes, primary sources along with some case studies and military record sources. Other sources include slave narratives, church sources, etc. One section is arranged by state.

Zubatsky, Daniel S. Sourcebook for Jewish Genealogies and Family Histories. Teaneck, N.J.: Avotayvu, 1996. (Ref CS 31 Z83 1996)
Following a bibliography of sources used there is an alphabetical listing of surnames with location of sources. A Soundex index complets the work.

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Virginiana

Included in this section are a wide variety of types of sources including bibliographies, general histories, biographies, primary sources, place name sources, and legislative materials .The two works by Cappon are invaluable for their indexing of the major Colonial Virginia newspaper and his compilation on early Virginia newspaper locations. Swem's exhaustive indexing of several important historical serial publications is a source for all Virginia genealogists.

Axelson, Ethel F., comp.Virginia Postmasters and Post Offices, 1789-1832. Athens, Ga.: Iberian Publishing Company, 1991. (Ref F 225 A98 1991).
This source is arranged alphabetically by county and then post office within the county. Many post offices do not exist today. An appendix lists post offices that are not know for their geographic location. Each post office listing includes the postmaster and dates.

Bentley, Elizabeth P. Virginia Marriage Records from the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, The William and Mary College Quarterly, and Tyler's Quarterly. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1984. (Ref F 225 V883 1982).
Arranged by county and date. Comprehensive index.

Bailey, Kent P. A Guide to Seventeenth-Century Virginia Court Handwriting. Richmond, Va.: Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, 1980. (Z 107 B34 1980).
This guide contains examples of handwriting along with a scholarly discussion of early handwriting in Colonial Virginia.

Bockstruck, Lloyd D. Virginia's Colonial Soldiers. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1988. (F 225 B63 1988).
Massive compilation of records of the various Colonial wars, petitions, bounty land warrants and records, etc. Indexed by place and individuals name. Currently the most comprehensive source for Colonial military records.

Brown, Stuart E., Jr., comp. Virginia Genealogies: a Trial List of Printed Books and Pamphlets. Berryville, Va.:Virginia Book Co., [1967-1989]. 3 vol. (Ref F 225 B786 1967).
Libraries at the University of Virginia, William and Mary, Virginia State Library, and the Virginia Historical Society were checked. Volumes 2 and 3 have varying titles. Volume 2 indexes Virginia periodicals, some manuscripts at the noted libraries, and other miscellaneous materials. Volume 3, arranged by county, lists major local history sources of interest to the genealogist.

Bruce, Philip A. Virginia; Rebirth of the Old Dominion. Chicago: Lewis Publishing, 1929. 5 vol. (F 226 B88).
Volumes 1-2 are historical. The final three volumes contain biographies of living Virginians. Includes genealogical research possibilities.

Burgess, Louis A. Virginia Soldiers of 1776. Spartanburg, S.C.: Reprint Co., [1973] reprint of the 1927-29 ed. 3 vol. (E 263 V8 B922).
Records from the Virginia Land Bounty Office.

Butler, Stuart L. Virginia Soldiers in the United States Army, 1800-1815. Athens, Ga.: Iberian, 1986. (F 225 B97 1986).
Records are taken from National Archives files. Information includes unit of service, age upon enlistment, where born, where died, where discharged, etc.

Cappon, Lester J., and Duff, Stella F. Virginia Gazette Index, 1736-1780. Williamsburg, Va.: Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1950. 2 vol. (Ref AI 21 V5 1950).
Detailed index to Virginia's Leading Colonial newspaper. Individuals are indexed. The newspaper is available in Carrier Library on microfilm.

Cappon, Lester J. Virginia Newspapers 1821-1935: a Bibliography with Historical Introduction and Notes. New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1936. (Ref F 230 C28 1936)
Comprehensive bibliographic coverage is provided as Cappon lists library holdings for individual newspaper issues. Arranged by city. Because of its publication date Cappon must be supplemented by more recent sources.

Clemens, William M. Virginia Wills Before 1799, A Complete Abstract Register of All Names Mentioned in Over Six Hundred Recorded WillS,.... Baltimore: Southern Book, 1958. (F 230 C62 1958).
Alphabetical list. Notes date of will filing and beneficiaries.

Crozier, William A., ed. Early Virginia Marriages. Baltimore: Southern Book, 1953. (F 225 C9).
Arranged chronologically within counties. No index.

Crozier, William A. Virginia Colonial Militia, 1651-1776. Baltimore: Southern Book, 1954. (F 229 C94 1954).
Crozier lists individuals from a variety of sources including records in Hening's, county roster records, land bounty certificates, etc.

Crumrine, Boyd. Virginia Court Records in Southwestern Pennsylvania: Records of the District of West Augusta and Ohio and Yohogania Counties, Virginia, 1775-1780; With an Index by Inez Waldenmaier. Consolidated Edition. Baltimore: Clearfield Company, 1974 reprint of the 1902-1905 ed. (KFV 2915 A72 1775b).
Records for an area under Augusta County control during the American Revolutionary War.

Douglas, William.The Douglas Register: Being a Detailed Record of Births, Marriages and Deaths Together With Other Interesting Notes, as Kept by the Rev. William Douglas, from 1750 to 1797. An Index of Goochland Wills. Notes on the French- Huguenot Refugees Who Lived in Manakin-Town. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 2001 reprint of the 1928 ed. (F 232 G65 D7 2001).
This book is especially of interest to early Huguenot genealogical research in Virginia. Coverage is generally of the area around Richmond.

Eckenrode, H. C., comp. Virginia Soldiers of the American Revolution. Richmond: Virginia State Library and Archives, 1989 reprint of the 1912 publication entitled List of the Revolutionary Soldiers of Virginia. 2 vol. (E 263 V8 L73 1989).
Alphabetical arrangement. Notes where the information was taken from. Attempts comprehensiveness although the compiler notes there are additional records not located at the time of publication.

Egle, William H., ed.Virginia Claims to Land in Western Pennsylvania: Published With an Account of the Donation Lands of Pennsylvania. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 2001 reprint of the 1896 ed. (F 225 V572 2001).
This book is a reprint from the Pennsylvania Archives, Third Series, Vol. III. It contains a history of Virginia and Pennsylvania and their dispute over land that is currently in the southwest corner of Pennsylvania. Coverage begins in 1754 when this area was under the jurisdiction of Augusta County.

Fleet, Beverley, comp. Virginia Colonial Abstracts. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1961. 34 vol. (Ref F 225 F582).
Reprinting of various county records. Generally counties in Eastern Virginia are printed.

Fothergill, Augusta B. Virginia Tax Payers, 1782-87: Other Than Those Published by the United States Census Bureau. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1966. (Ref F 225 F6 1967).
Alphabetical arrangement. Lists any slaves held and the county of residence.

Gill, Harold B., Jr. Apprentices of Virginia, 1623-1800. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1989. (F 229 G49 1989).
Ca. 8,000 apprentices in Virginia are included in this listing. Information, when known, includes dates, gender, parent, occupation, and source of information.

Gray, Gertrude E., comp. Virginia Northern Neck Land Grants. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1987-1993. 4 vol. (Ref F 232 N86 G73 1987).
Patent books cover 1694-1862. The Norther Neck encompassed all land between the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers. Information includes name of grantee, dates of warrant and survey, date and location of grant, acreage, names of former owners/occupiers, names of adjacent property owners, etc. Ca. 16,000 abstracts and 37,500 individuals are named.

Greer, George Cabell. Early Virginia Immigrants, 1623-1666. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1960 reprint of the 1912 ed. (F 225 G81 1960).
About 25,000 individuals are listed along with their patentee.

Grundset, Eric G. Genealogical Research in Virginia. (F 221 G79 1994).
This was in the September 1994 issue of National Genealogical Society Quarterly. It presents an overview of how to perform genealogical research in Virginia. A superb bibliography is appended.

Gwathmey, John H. Historical Register of Virginians in the Revolution: Soldiers, Sailors, Marines, 1775-1783. Richmond: Dietz, 1938. (E 263 V8 G9).
Alphabetical listing.

Hall, Virginius C., Jr. "Virginia Post Offices, 1798-1859."The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 81 (January 1973): [49]-97.
Exhaustive listing of post office names for the period covered. The introduction and bibliography for the article are useful.

Hanson, Raus M. Virginia Place Names: Derivations, Historical Uses. Verona, Va.: McClure, [1969]. (Ref F 224 H3).
Arranged by county and city.

Hart, Lyndon H., comp. A Guide to Genealogical Notes and Charts in the Archives Branch, Virginia State Library. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1983. (Ref F 225 H37 1983).
Over 1,000 privately compiled genealogies available at the Virginia State Library. Information includes size of the collection and the compiler.

Headley, Robert K., Jr. Genealogical Abstracts from 18th-Century Virginia Newspapers. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1987. (Ref F 225 H43 1987).
Eighty-One Newspapers were checked. In addition to the names Headley notes what the article was about.

Hiden, Martha W. How Justice Grew: Virginia Counties, an Abstract of Their Formation Williamsburg, Va.: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corp., 1957. (F 229 J36 no. 19).
Detailed history. Includes charts of county formation.

Hogg, Anne M. Virginia Cemeteries: a Guide to Resources. Charlottesville, Va.: Published for the University of Virginia Library by the University Press of Virginia, 1986. (Ref F 225 V837 1986).
Lists major cemeteries and their addresses. Notes published and unpublished sources on the cemeteries. Arranged by county and city.

Hopkins, William L. Some Wills From the Burned Counties of Virginia. Athens, Ga.: Iberian, 1995. (F 225 H67 1997)
Using sources at the Library of Virginia and several Virginia historical publications Hopkins has abstracted wills from twenty Virginia counties. The source is listed for each will. The listed wills are not in Clayton Torrence's Virginia Wills and Administrations 1632-1800. Indexed.

Hughes, Sarah S. Surveyors and Statesmen Land Measuring in Colonial Virginia. [Richmond]: The Virginia Surveyors Foundation, Ltd. and The Virginia Association of Surveyors, Inc., 1979. (TA 522 V8 H83).
A scholarly study on surveying in Virginia. An example of land grants and the process of land development in Virginia.

Hummel, Ray O., Jr. A List of Places Included in 19th Century Virginia Directories. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1960. (Ref F 224 H8 1981).
A historical directory in which various early city and business directories have been used to obtain the earliest Virginia place names. Comprehensive.

Jester, Annie L. Adventures of Purse and Person, Virginia, 1607-1625. 2nd ed. [Richmond]: Sponsored by the Order of First Families of Virginia, 1607-1620, [1964]. (F 229 J4 1964).
Biographical (genealogical) record of the early Virginia settlers. Contains the Muster (census) of 1625.

Joyner, Peggy S. Abstracts of Virginia's Northern Neck Warrants & Surveys. Portsmouth, Va.: [The Author], 1985-1995. 5 vol. (Ref F 225 J76 1985).
This work lists supplemental papers located at the Library of Virginia along with warrants and surveys of the Northern Neck Proprietary. This was land lying between the headwaters of the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers. See also the work by Gertrude Gray (above)on Northern Neck sources.

The Library of Virginia. A Guide to Bible Records in the Library of Virginia . Richmond: The Library, 1985, 1999. 2 vol. (Ref F 225 V893 1999).
Ca. 5,000 family Bible records are arranaged alphabetically. Notes county of origin and dates of the records. The records list additional family surnames in the records.

Library of Virginia. A Guide to Church Records in the Library of Virginia. Richmond: The Library, 2002. 2nd ed., rev. and enl. (Ref CD 3568.5 V57 2002).
Arranged by denomination. An appendix has locations of Colonial parish records and vestry books.

McGhan, Judith. Virginia Vital Records from the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, the William and Mary College Quarterly, and Tyler's Quarterly. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1982. (Ref F 225 V93 1982).
Arranged by county. Records include birth, death, obituary notices, tombstone inscriptions, etc.

McGhan, Judith. Virginia Will Records from the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, the William and Mary College Quarterly, and Tyler's Quarterly. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1993. (Ref F 225 V94 1993).
In addition to wills from the three journals are some articles on early court minutes, deeds, etc. Arranged by county. Comprehensive index.

McGinnis, Carol. Virginia Genealogy: Sources and Resources. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1993. (Ref F 225 M38 1993).
The best current guide to Virginia genealogical research. All time periods are covered. Topical approaches include vital records, census, African-American, etc. Sections on counties and independent cities are a major part of the guide. A major bibliography completes the work.

Morton, Richard L. Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Published for the Virginia Historical Society by the University of North Carolina Press, 1960. 2 vol. (F 229 M75).
Comprehensive. Useful as an overview to the history of this time period in Virginia.

Ray, Suzanne S., comp. A Preliminary Guide to Pre-1904 County Records in the Archives Branch Virginia State Library and Archives. Richmond: Virginia State Library and Archives, [1987?]. (Ref CD 3564 V85 1987).
The main portion of this guide is arranged by county with lists of official county records on microfilm at the Library of Virginia. Other material includes historical backgrounds of local government in the state, a glossary, and an appendix discussing the Virginia State Court System since 1776.

Rockingham Public Library. Virginiana: a List of Historical, Genealogical, and Biographical Books at the Rockingham Public Library,.... Harrisonburg, Va.: Rockingham Library Association, 1941. (F 225 R62 1941).
Titles held in 1941. Typescript.

Saffell, William T. R. Records of the Revolutionary War... with Index to Saffell's List of Virginia Soldiers in the Revolution. 3rd ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1969 reprint of the 1894 ed. (E 203 S13 1969).
Records include all American colonies. Useful in Virginia genealogical research for Saffell's index of Virginia soldiers in this edition.

Salmon, Emily, ed. The Hornbook of Virginia History: a Ready-Reference Guide to the Old Dominion's People, Places, and Past. Richmond: Library of Virginia, 1994. 4th ed. (F 226 V88 1994).
Outstanding compilation of key sources, dates, and events in Virginia history. Many lists, e.g. Virginia's Governors, are printed.

Salmon, Emily J., comp. Office of the Second Auditor Inventory. Richmond, Va.: Virginia State Library, Archives and Records Division, 1981. (Ref CD 3566 O33 V57 1981).
The office of the Second Auditor covered the years 1823-1928. Areas of the Auditor's coverage included literary funds, internal improvements (canals, etc.), and the public debt.

Salmon, John S. Auditor of Public Accounts Inventory. Richmond: Virginia State Library and Archives, 1992. (Ref CD 3566 A93 S25 1992).
A guide to the records of the Auditor of Public Accounts. This office was in existence from 1776 to 1928. The records are located at the Library of Virginia. Information in the inventory is from Virginia state dispersements. Individuals and their involvement in receiving payments are an important part of this material.

Salmon, Robert A. A Guide to State Records in the Archives Branch, Virginia State Library. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1985. (Ref CD 3564 S25 1985).
Brief descriptions, including the physical size of the records.

Schweitzer, George K. Virginia Genealogical Research. Knoxville, Tenn.: George K. Schweitzer, 1995. (Ref F 225 S34 1995).
Major sections include a historical background, types of records, record locations, and county court records. Much of the material in this guide is brief.

Stewart, Robert A. Index to Printed Virginia Genealogies, Including Key and Bibliography. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1965. (F 225 S73 1965).
Stewart has indexed hundreds of histories, family histories, published primary sources, etc. Comprehensive.

Swem, Earl G., comp. Virginia Historical Index. Glouster, [Mass]: Peter Smith, 1965 reprint of the 1934-1936. 2 vol in 4. (Ref F 221 S93 1965).
Exhaustive indexing of Virginia journal and legal literature. Critically important for genealogical research in Virginia to the early 1930's.

Torrence, Clayton, comp. Virginia Wills and Administrations, 1632-1800; an Index of Wills Recorded in Local Courts of Virginia, 1632-1800, and of Administrations on Estates Shown by Inventories of the Estates of Intestates Recorded in Wills' Other) Books of Local Courts, 1632-1800. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1965 reprint of the 1930 ed. (F 225 T85 1965).
Surname arranged. Under each surname there is a grouping by county and Christian name.

Tyler, Lyon G., ed. Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing, 1915. 5 vol. (F 225 T97).
Biographies of distinguished Virginians. Volumes 1 - 3 are historical (through the 19th century). The final volumes are early twentieth-century personalities. Some genealogical value.

Vernon, Robert, comp. A Bibliography of Abstracts and Compilations of Virginia City and County Records. Athens, Ga.: Iberian Publishing Co., 1993. (Ref F 225 V47 1993).
Arranged by county this bibliography lists available records at the Library of Virginia. The range of records is broad most having genealogical interest.

Virginia. Calendar of Virginia State Papers and Other Manuscripts... Preserved in the Capitol at Richmond. Richmond: [The State], 1875-1893. 11 vol. (F 221 V5).
Primary source material including genealogical information. This is indexed in the Swem index (see above).

Virginia (Colony). Council. Minutes of the Council and General Court of Colonial Virginia. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1979. (J 87 V58 1979).
Council coverage is from 1622-1632 and 1670-1676. Individuals are in the index.

Virginia (Colony) General Assembly. House of Burgesses. Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia. Richmond: [The Colonial Press, E. Waddey Co.], 1915. 10 vol. (J 87 V6 1619-1776).
This primary source material includes individuals. Indexed.

Virginia Company of London. The Records of the Virginia Company of London.... Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1906-1935. 4 vol. (F 229 V86).
Documents of the Company. Many individual names are included. Indexed.

Virginia. Council. Executive Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1925-1966. (J 87 V588). 6 vol.
This series covers the years 1680-1775. The indexes include a large number of individuals that were involved with the Colonial government of that day.

Virginia. Council. Legislative Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia. Richmond: [The Colonial Press, Everett Waddey Co.], 1918-1919. (J 87 V59). 3 vol.
Primary source material including individuals. Indexed. Virginia. Council. Minutes of the Council and General Court of Colonial Virginia, 1622-1632, 1670-1676, with Notes and Excerpts from Original Council and General Court Records, into 1683, now Lost. Richmond: [The Colonial Press, Everett Waddey Co.], 1924. (J 87 V58). Early, official records. Indexed.

Virginia. Council of State. Journals of the Council of the State of Virginia. Richmond: Division of Purchase and Printing, 1931- . (J 87 V94c). 5 vol.
The coverage of these Journals is 1776-1791. Individuals are included in the indexes.

Virginia. Division of Mineral Resources. Geographic and Cultural Names in Virginia. Charlottesville, Va.:The Division, 1974. (HD 9506 U63 V5 no. 20).
Sections are given on place names, water features, landforms, and religious institutions. Entries are indexed to the standard 7.5 minute topographic maps for Virginia. Includes historical place names.

Virginia. Laws, etc. The Laws of Virginia; Being a Supplement to Hening's The Statutes at Large, 1700-1750. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1971. (KFV 2430.5 W52).
Additional statutes missed by Hening (see below). Records of genealogical interest are included. Indexed.

Virginia. Laws, etc. The Statutes at Large: Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia, from the First Session of the Legislature, in the Year 1619.... New York: Printed for the Editor, by R. & W. & G. Bartow, 1819-1823. 13 vol. (KFV 2425.2 1619c).
Cited as Hening (edited by William Waller Hening). Includes genealogical information. Indexed. An index to the personal names in Henings and Shepherd's continuation was compiled by Joseph J. Casey in 1967. It is entitled Personal Names in Hening's Statutes at Large of Virginia, and Shepherd's Continuation. It is located @ Ref F 225 V8133 1967.

Virginia. Laws, etc. The Statutes at Large of Virginia, from October Session 1792, to December Session 1806 [i.e. 1897] Inclusive. New York: AMS, [1970] reprint of the 1835 ed. (KFV 2425.2 1792ab).
Continuation of Hening (above).

Virginia State Library. Virginia Local History, a Bibliography. Richmond: The Library, 1971. (Ref F 225 V57).
Over 700 entries arranged by county and city. Several Virginia journals are listed.

Virginia State Library. Archives Division. List of Colonial Soldiers of Virginia. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1961 reprint of the 1917 ed. (F 229 V94 1961).
Alphabetical listing. A wide variety of sources were checked including such local histories, Hening's, records of the House of Burgesses, certain manuscript sources, etc.

Virginia. State Library Library. Archives Division. Lists of the Court Records of the Virginia Counties on Microfilm in the Archives Division, Virginia State Library. Richmond: The Library, [1976?]. (Microfilm no. 648).
Arranged by county and city.

Virginia Tax Records from the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, the William and Mary College Quarterly, and Tyler's Quarterly. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1983. (Ref F 225 V887 1983).
Arranged by county. The records are from 1654 - 1850 with the majority in the 18th century.

Vogt, John. Marriage Records in the Virginia State Library: a Researcher's Guide. 2nd ed. Athens, Ga.: Iberian, 1988. (Ref F 225 V62 1988).
Arranged by county and city this guide lists the microfilm sources available at the Library of Virginia. Bibliographies of published sources are included.

Vogt, John. Will and Estate Records in the Virginia State Library: a Researcher's Guide. Athens, Ga.: Iberian, 1987. (Ref F 225 V64 1987).
Lists of the microfilm records and published sources at the State Library. Arranged by county and city.

Ward, Roger G. 1815 Directory of Virginia Landowners (and Gazetteer). Volume Four: Northern Region Comprising the Counties of Alexandria County, Culpeper County, Fairfax County, Fauquier County, Frederick County, Independent City of Alexandria, Independent City of Fredericksburg, Independent City of Winchester, Loudoun County, Madison County, Orange County, Prince William County, Rockingham County, Shenandoah County, Spotsylvania County and Stafford County. . Athens, Ga.: Iberian Publishing Company, 1999. (F 225 W373 1997).
The compiler used the the microfilm records from the Library of Virginia in his work. A map of each locality is provided. Arrangement is alphabetical with a notation on where the individual lived and the miles from the courthouse of record. Volume five, which covers southwest Virginia, includes Augusta County. Volume six has the northwest region. This includes counties presently in West Virginia.

Wardell, Patrick G. Timesaving Aid to Virginia-West Virginia Ancestors.... Athens, Ga.: Iberian, 1991. (Ref F 225 W33 1991).
Wardell indexes surnames in over 400 genealogy reference sources. Useful to quickly establish where a surname has been indexed/recorded on Virginia families.

Withington, Lothrop.Virginia Gleanings in England: Abstracts of 17th and 18th-Century English Wills and Administrations Relating to Virginia and Virginians. A Consolidation of Articles from The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1980. (F 225 W75 1980).
This is reprinted from columns in the Magazine from 1903 to 1929. Eighty-five articles are printed here. Comprehensive index of names.

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Rockingham County/Shenandoah Valley

All genealogy research is local history. This section lists examples of the immediate area. Good's guide is extremely valuable within this region. Swank's cemetery record is an example of indepth work which is unpublished. This type of resource may be located for other areas. John Wayland has several works which have genealogical information. His History of Rockingham County is an example of a county history having genealogical value. Miller's citation is an example of a comprehensive bibliography listing genealogies and reference materials on a local level.

Brown, John. Shenandoah Valley Family Data, 1799-1813: From the Memorandum Book of Pastor Johannes Braun. Edinburg, Va.: Shenandoah History, 1978. (Ref F 232 S5 B75).
Early church records mainly from Rockingham and Augusta counties.

Cartmell, Thomas K. Shenandoah Valley Pioneers and Their Descendants..... [Winchester, Va.: Printed by the Eddy Press, 1909]. (Ref F 232 S5 C3).
Coverage is mainly the lower Valley.

Cleek, George W. Early Western Augusta Pioneers; Including the Families of Cleek, Gwin, Lightner and Warwick and Related Families of Bratton, Campbell, Carlile, Craig, Crawford, Dyer, Gay, Givens, Graham, Harper, Henderson, Hull, Keister, Lockridge, McFarland, and Moore. Baltimore: Clearfield Company, 1992 reprint of the 1957 ed. (F 232 A9 C64 1992).
Genealogies on a number of early Augusta County settlers is provided here. The compiler includes chapters on German and Scotch-Irish families in the County. A bibliography is included.

[Cooley, Harriett], comp. Revolutionary Soldiers, Rockingham County, Virginia. [Harrisonburg, Va: Rockingham Historical Society], 1976. (E 263 V8 R4).
Information includes (when available) pension record number, brief service record, and birth/death dates.

Couper, William. History of the Shenandoah Valley. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., [1952]. (Sp Coll F 232 S5 C65).
Volume three has family and personal records. Illustrated.

Good, Rebecca H., and Ebert, Rebecca A. Finding Your People in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia: a Genealogical Guide. 3rd ed. Bowie, Md.: Heritage Books, 1993. (Ref F 232 S5 E242 1993).
A detailed guide to eleven counties in Virginia and West Virginia. In addition to information on county court records repositories in each county are noted. A bibliography of primary and secondary sources complete the guide.

Harrison, John H. Settlers by the Long Grey Trail; Some Pioneers to Old Augusta County, Virginia, and Their Descendants, of the Family of Harrison and Allied Lines. Dayton, Va.: Joseph K. Ruebush, 1935. (Sp Coll F 232 R7 H27).
Early families in Rockingham and Augusta counties.

Kemper, Charles E. "Adam Muller (Miller), First White Settler in the Valley of Virginia." The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 10 (July 1902): 84-86.
Genealogical information is included in this interesting article on the first white settler in Rockingham County.

Kercheval, Samuel. A History of the Valley of Virginia. 7th ed. Harrisonburg, Va.: C.J. Carrier, 1986. (F 232 S5 K42 1986).
Kercheval has the earliest history of the Valley. His first edition was published in 1833.

Miller, Gordon W. Rockingham: an Annotated Bibliography of a Virginia County. Harrisonburg, Va.: Harrisonburg-Rockingham Historical Society, 1989. (Ref F 232 R7 M5486 1986).
Comprehensive bibliography of the five major libraries in Rockingham County. Over 300 family histories, with an additional eighty genealogical reference sources, are listed.

Priode, Marguerite B. Abstracts of Executor, Administrator, and Guardian Bonds of Rockingham County, Virginia, 1778-1864. Harrisonburg, Va.: Harrisonburg-Rockingham Historical Society, 1978. (Ref F 232 R7 P74).

Ritchie, Patricia T., comp. Index to the 1880 Census for Rockingham County, Virginia. Athens, Ga.: Iberian, [1991]. (Ref F 232 R7 R572 1991).
The name, race, sex, age, and locality within Rockingham County is given.

Rockingham County Personal Property Taxes, 1814-1827. Richmond: Virginia State Library and Archives, 1993. (Microfilm no. 1431).
This includes the 1815 tax list which had detailed information for each taxpayer. An excellent source for the genealogist. This is available for Virginia counties. Rockingham County, only, is available in Carrier Library.

Strickler, Harry M. Old Tenth Legion Marriages: Marriages in Rockingham County, Virginia, from 1788 to 1816, Taken from the Marriage Bonds. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1976. (F 232 R7 S9 1976; also in Sp Coll).

Strickler, Harry M. Tenth Legion Tithables (Rockingham Division) Rockingham County, Virginia Tithables for 1792; a List of All White Males Above 16 Years of Age in the County and All the Slaves Above 12 in the County in 1792. Luray, Va.: The Author, 1930. (Sp Coll F 232 R7 S93).

Swank, J. Robert, comp. A Record of Burial Places in Rockingham County, Virginia (Including a Few in Neighboring Augusta and Shenandoah Counties). Singers Glen, Va.: [Swank], 1967. 2 vol. Typescript copy. (Sp Coll F 232 R7 S94 1989).
Detailed cemetery records covering most of Rockingham County (some areas in eastern Rockingham County are lacking). Swank attempted to check all cemeteries, including family burial grounds.

United States. Bureau of the Census. 1810-1840 U.S. Census: Rockingham County, Virginia. [Wichita, Kans.: S-K Publications, 1987]. (Ref and Sp Coll F 232 R7 U5 1810-1840).

United States. Bureau of the Census. 1850 U.S. Census: Rockingham County, Virginia. [Wichita, Kans.]: S-K Publications, 1987. 2 vol. (Ref and Sp Coll F 232 R7 U5 1850).
These two publications covering five nineteenth century Rockingham County census records are facsimilies of the microfilmed copy.

Wayland, John W. Historic Harrisonburg. Staunton, Va.: Printed for the Author by McClure, 1949. (F 234 H31 W3; also in Sp Coll).
Example of a city history having genealogical information.

Wayland, John W. A History of Rockingham County, Virginia. Dayton, Va.: Ruebush-Elkins, 1912. (F 232 R7 W3; also in Sp Coll).
Example of a county history having genealogical information.

Wayland, John W. Virginia Valley Records; Genealogical and Historical Materials of Rockingham County, Virginia, and Related Regions (with Map). Strasburg, Va.: Printed by Shenandoah Publishing House, 1930. (F 232 R7 W32; also in Sp Coll).
Miscellaneous records from the research efforts of the dominant Valley historian. A gold mine of information for the genealogist.

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Military Records

This section contains guides to general military records sources. Additional sources are listed under Virginiana and Rockingham County/Shenandoah Valley.

Beers, Henry P. Guide to the Archives of the Government of the Confederate States of America. Washington, D. C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1986. (Ref CD 3047 B4 1986).
Comprehensive guide to all records from the Confederacy in the National Archives. as much genealogical research value.

Bethel, Elizabeth, comp. Preliminary Inventory of the War Department Collection of Confederate Records. Athens, Ga.: Iberian Publishing Co., 1994. (Ref CD 3047 B48 1994).
Originally published in 1957 by the National Archives and Records Service. This book lists, in detail, Confederate records at the National Archives.

Bockstruck, Lloyd D. Revolutionary War Bounty Land Grants Awarded by State Governments. [Baltimore]: Genealogical Publishing, [1996]. (E 255 B66 1996).
An alphabetically arranged book listing the veteran along with his military rank, date of the bounty and the acres received. Known heirs are named. The introduction describes the bounty land system and notes the states not providing land bounties.

Brumbaugh, Gaius M. Revolutionary War Records, Virginia: Virginia Army and Navy Forces With Bounty Land Warrants for Virginia, Military District of Ohio, and Virginia Military Scrip; From Federal and State Archives. [Baltimore]: Genealogical Publishing, [1967, 1995 reprint of the 1936 ed.]. (E 255 B85 1995).
Detailed listing of Virginia men serving in the Revolutionary War. Information varies with some biographical sketches included. Records are from the Virginia State Library, National Archives, etc.

Callahan, Edward W., ed. List of Officers of the Navy of the United States and the Marine Corps from 1775 to 1900.... New York: L.R. Hamersly & Co., 1901. (V 11 U7 L57 1989).
A comprehensive listing of all naval officers. Other information includes Marine Corps officers, list of vessels of war, a sketch of the early Navy, etc.

Clark, Murtie J. American Militia in the Frontier Wars, 1790-1796. [Baltimore]: Genealogical Publishing, 1990. (U 11 U5 C5 1990).
Published records from the National Archives. Virginia Soliders are included. Information provided includes unit of service, name, rank, and "remarks."

Coldham, Peter P. American Loyalist Claims: Abstracted from the Public Record Office, Audit Office Series 13, Bundles 1-35 & 37. Washington, D.C.: National Genealogical Society, 1980. (CS 42 N43 no. 45).
This volume of Loyalist claims from the American Revolutionary War has value to the genealogist because of its listing of names along with locations, dates, what the claim was, and if it were accepted or rejected. A claim of interest to Virginia researchers is that of the heir to Lord Fairfax. Volume 1 available.

Coldham, Peter W. American Migrations, 1765-1799: The Lives, Times and Families of Colonial Americans Who Remained Loyal to the British Crown Before, During and After the Revolutionary War, as Related in Their Own Words and Through Their Correspondence. Baltimore: Genealogical Computing, 2000. (E277 C59 2000).
In this volume Coldham continues with additional information in his American Loyalist Claims book (noted above). In London an American Claims Commission received claims from Loyalists shortly after the end of the American Revolution. Thousands of names are listed along with information on where they had lived and their new domicile and work.

The Confederate Veteran Magazine. 1893-1932. (Periodical).
This reprint of the Magazine is a gold mine of information on all aspects of Confederate life during the War. A three volume index is available. The first volume of the index has a discussion about the periodical and includes sections that include information about using this source and genealogy. A vital source for family historians with ancestors on the Confederate side during the Civil War.

Groene, Bertram H. Tracing Your Civil War Ancestor. Winston-Salem, N.C.: J. F. Blair, [1973]. (CD 3047 G76).
The discussion includes specialized reference and primary source Civil War records. Appendices include libraries having key primary source records.

Heitman, Francis B. Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, from its Organization, September 29, 1789, to March 2, 1903. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1903. (U 11 U5 H6 1965).
A wide variety of information is printed. Generally only officers are listed.

Hewett, Janet B., ed. The Roster of Confederate Soldiers, 1861-1865. Wilmington, N.C.: Broadfoot Publishing Company, 1995. 16 vol. (Ref E 548 R65 1995).
A listing of every known Confederate soldier is available here. Information provided is the unit(s) they served in. The first volume has an introduction placing this source in context and noting its by family historians. The final volume has a list of abbreviations used and a "glossary" listing, by state, military units and their changes throughout the war.

Hopkins, William L. Virginia Revolutionary War Land Grant Claims 1783-1850 (Rejected). Richmond: William L. Hopkins, 1988. (F 225 H68)
Abstracted information from micfilmed records at the Library of Virginia. This material is for Bounty Land requests. Information includes such information as name, rank, heirs, ages, death dates, etc.

Horowitz, Lois. A Bibliography of Military Name Lists from Pre-1675 to 1900: a Guide to Genealogical Sources. Metuchen, N. J.: Scarecrow. 1990. (Ref CS 68 H67 1990).
Arranged by time period. Each section has an introduction discussing the wars, conflicts, etc. For each period a list of sources by nation, state, and county is provided. Books and journal articles, including local history periodicals, are used as sources.

Mills, Gary B. Southern Loyalists in the Civil War: The Southern Claims Commission. A Composite Directory of Case Files Created by the U.S. Commissioner of Claims, 1871-1880, Including Those Appealed to the War Claims Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Court of Claims. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1994. (Ref E 480.5 M55 1994).
A master index to the SCC files. Information provided includes claimant, county and state of residence, SCC commission and report numbers, year of claim, and claim status. Over 22,000 separate claims were filed. The actual claims contain such information as letters, Bibles, wills, probate records, etc. See the handout author's Rockingham: an Annotated Bibliography of a Virginia County for access to claim information at Eastern Mennonite University.

Munden, Kenneth W. The Union: a Guide to Federal Archives Relating to the Civil War. Washington, D. C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1986. (Ref CD 3047 M8 1986).
Comprehensive listing of the Union records held at the National Archives. Useful in genealogical research.

National Genealogical Society. Index of Revolutionary War Pension Applications in the National Archives. Bicentennial ed., rev. & enl. Washington, D.C.:The Society, 1976. (CS 42 N43 no. 40).
Massive compilation. Excellent introduction that puts the records into historical perspective.

Neagles, James C. Confederate Research Sources: a Guide to Archive Collections. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1986. (Ref E 487 N3 1986).
The discussion includes an overview of the Confederacy and the records it produced. Chapters are available on searching in the Confederate states, border states, the National Archives, and other sources. Scholarly.

Neagles, James C. U.S. Military Records: a Guide to Federal and State Sources, Colonial America to the Present. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1994. (Ref E 181 N42 1994).
A comprehensive guide covering records at the national and state level during all periods of time for the American experience of the United States.

Newman, John J. Uncle, We are Ready! Registering America's Men 1917-1918: A Guide to Researching World War I Draft Registration Cards. North Salt Lake, Utah: Heritage Quest, 2001. (Ref D 570.8 R4 N48 2001).
This is a guide to registration records for World War I soldiers. Five introductory chapters discuss and describe the draft registration process. The main part of the book is arranged by state and its local boards. Here information is given of the number registered. Information is also provided listing the National Archives and Family History Center microfilm numbers to be used in requesting microfilm. A CD-ROM complements the book. Here a list of local draft boards along with statistical information on the registrants is provided. A variety of county and city maps completes the CD.

Sanchez-Saavedra, E.M., comp. A Guide to Virginia Military Organizations in the American Revolution, 1774-1787. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1978. (Ref E 263 V8 S25).
This source is arranged by the various Continental organizations within Virginia during the War. A list of loyalist organizations, a list of official unit names and their variants, and a list of the major bibliographic sources cited in this work are available.

Schaefer, Christina K. The Great War: A Guide to the Service Records of All the World's Fighting Men and Volunteers. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1998. (Ref D 609 A2 S33 1998).
Arranged by country this guide lists where available records are located. In the United States they are scattered out in many repositories. A brief chapter notes what is available on the Internet.

Schweitzer, George K. Revolutionary War Genealogy. Knoxville, Tenn.: George K. Schweitzer, 1997. (Ref CS 63 S37 1997)
A discussion of the major sources on the War along with major archives and libraries is presented. One section discusses local records.

Spratt, Thomas M. Men in Gray Interments. Athens, Ga.: Iberian Publishing Company, 1996- . 6 vol. Virginia Cemetery Series. (E 548 S72 1996)
The author attempts to list all Confederate, and some Union, soldiers buried in Virginia cemeteries. Each volume has an index and bibliography.

Taylor, Philip F. A Calendar of the Warrants for Land in Kentucky, Granted for Service in the French and Indian War. Baltimore: Clearfield Company, 2001. (HD 184 K42 A45 2001).
This source was surveyed from the original surveys and plats in the Kentucky Land Office.

United States. National Archives and Records Service. Military Service Records in the National Archives of the United States. Washington, D.C.: The Archives, 1977. (Ref CD 3033 1985).
General guide and index to the military service records available through the National Archives. Useful in determining what is available for interlibrary loan purposes.

United States. Pay Dept. (War Dept.) Pierce's Register: Register of the Certificates Issued by John Pierce, Esquire, Paymaster General and Commissioner of Army Accounts for the United States, to Officers and Soldiers of the Continental Army Under Act of July 4, 1783. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1987 reprint of the 1913-1914 ed. (Ref E 255 U47 1987).
Ca. 93,000 names of Revolutionary War servicement. There are names lacking including militiamen who served. This work lists individuals who received certificates at the end of the war for payment of services during the war. Information includes name, certificate number, and the amount of payment. An introductory list of certificate numbers notes the state, unit, etc. the indivual served under.

Virginia. Auditor of Public Accounts.Virginia Militia in the War of 1812: From the Rolls in the Auditor's Office at Richmond. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 2001 reprint of the 1851 ed. 2 vol. (E 359.5 V8 V8 2001).
Originally published as "Pay Rolls of Militia Entitled to Land Bounty Under the Act of Congress of Sept. 28, 1850." Muster and payrolls are printed. Comprehensive index.

Virginia Genealogical Society. Virginia Revolutionary War State Pensions. Greenville, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, 1992 reprint of the 1980 ed. (E 263 V8 V8 1992).
Text of abstracts of state pension records.

Wardell, Patrick G. War of 1812: Virginia Bounty Land & Pension Applicants. A Quick Reference Guide to Ancestors Having War of 1812 Service Who Served, Lived, Died, or Married in Virginia or West Virginia. Bowie, Md.: Heritage Books, 1987. (E 359.4 W37 1987).
This source has extracted information from National Archive records on Virginia and West Virginia solders of the War of 1812 that had pension and bounty land warrants filed. Information includes such information as date and place of death, spouse's name, date and place of marriage, date and place of spouse's death, etc.

White, J. Todd, ed. Fighters for Independence: a Guide to Sources of Biographical Information on Soldiers and Sailors of the American Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1977. (Ref E 206 W45 1977).
Contains lengthy annotated bibliographies.

White, Virgil D. Genealogical Abstracts of Revolutionary War Pension Files. Waynesboro, Tenn.: The National Historical Publishing Company, 1990. 4 vol. (Ref E 255 W55 1990).
White abstracted these records from the National Archives microfilmed records on the Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty Land Warrants. Arranged alphabetically the records contain information on the soldier including ages, his spouse, children, date of application, and residence location. Volume four is an index of ca. 400,000 names of the soldiers, petitioners, etc.

Wilson, Samuel M., comp.Catalogue of Revolutionary Soldiers and Sailors of the Commonwealth of Virginia to Whom Land Bounty Warrants Were Granted by Virginia for Military Services in the War for Independence. [Baltimore]: Clearfield Company, 1967 reprint of the 1913 ed. (E 263 V8 W5 1989).
Alphabetically arranged. Information includes name, warrant number, acres received, rank, department served, years served, and date.

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Biographical Sources

Most of the listings in this section are national in coverage. Wayland's entry is an example of a local work that includes historical biographies. Most county histories will contain biographical information. In the Rockingham County section (above) the Cartmell and Couper entries include biographical information. Slocum's bibliography is a scholarly work that can suggest possible sources of biographical data.

American National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 24 vol. (Ref CT 213 A68 1999).
This is the standard biographical dictionary for deceased Americans. With this work women and minorities are included in the entries.

Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1888-1889. 6 vol. (Ref E 176 A65).
An early biographical dictionary. Scholarly.

Biography and Genealogical Master Index. CD-ROM. (Reference Area).
An index to several million individuals from all time periods and geographic areas. Over 500 biographical souces have been indexed for this source.

Bruce, Philip A. History of Virginia. Chicago: American Historical Society, 1924. 6 vol. (F 226 H67).
The first three volumes are a general history. The final three volumes have biographical sketches of contemporary Virginians and their families.

Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Scribner, 1928-1936. 20 vol + supplement. (E 176 D56).
The standard source for deceased Americans. Supplements bring this, on a continuing basis, to about twenty years behind the present. The British counterpart is The Dictionary of National Biography @ Ref DA 28 D4 1967.

The National Cyclopedia of American Biography. Clifton, N.J.: J.T. White, 1893-1984. (Ref E 176 N27).
The most comprehensive source of deceased Americans. Not arranged alphabetically so indexes must be used. No bibliographies.

Slocum, Robert B., ed. Biographical Dictionaries and Related Works: an International Bibliography of Approximately 16,000 Collective Biographies.... 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Research, 1986. (Ref CT 104 S55 1986).
Sections by national/regional areas and by occupation. Massive compilation covering all geographic areas and time periods.

Wayland, John W., ed. Men of Mark and Representative Citizens of Harrisonburg and Rockingham County: Portraits and Biographies of Men and Women. Staunton, Va.: McClure, 1943. (Sp Coll F 232 R7 W314).
Example of a local biographical dictionary.

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Vital and Court Records

This section contains titles that discuss in general vital record sources. Other vital record titles are elsewhere, e.g. some titles are under "Virginiana."

Carter, Fran. Searching American Probate Records. Bountiful, Utah: American Genealogical Lending Library, 1995. (CS 42.7 C374 1993).
A useful discuss of wills and the probate process for the genealogist. A glossary is included.

Newman, John J. American Naturalization Processes and Procedures, 1790-1985. [Indianapolis, Ind.: Indiana Historical Society, Family History Section, 1985. (KF 4710 N49 1985).
A scholarly study in which Newman discusses aliens, naturalization laws and courts, naturalization and land purchase, and research procedures. An appendix has a list of naturalization procedures along with the dates of their effect. A bibliographic essay details major sources used. A number of examples of forms used completes the work.

Schaefer, Christina K. Guide to Naturalization Records of the United States. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997. (Ref CS 49 S28 1997).
This detailed guide is organized by state. In addition to an introduction on how to use the book the author discusses naturalization records of U.S. territories and records of native Americans. A glossary of terms and a listing of National Archives facilities completes this guide.

Shammas, Carole. Inheritance in America from Colonial Times to the Present. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1987. (KF 753 S53 1987).
A scholarly discussion of inheritance procedure and its legal aspects is presented. Useful for its historical applications.

Szucs, Loretto D.They Became Americans: Finding Naturalization Records and Ethnic Origins. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1998. (Ref CS 47 S97 1997).
This guide contains a lot of illustrations and example of naturalization records. One chapter discusses naturalization information on the Internet. Appendices include a chronology of immigration, subject listing of addresses and contacts, and a sample INS form.

Walne, Peter. English Wills: Probate Records in England and Wales with a Brief Note on Scottish and Irish Wills. A Special Report of the Virginia Colonial Records Project. Richmond: The Virginia State Library, 1964. (KD 1509 W35 1964).
A historical overview.

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General Sources

This section contains items that do not fit within the other sections of the handout. It includes information on where to write for vital records.

Arnold, Jackie S. Kinship: It's All Relative. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1994. (GN 480 A75 1994).
In this book the discussion centers on aspects on kinship and contains such topics as marriage, kinship groups, family, names, health and medicine, etc. Useful for the charts on kinship relationships.

Brown, Vandella. Celebrating the Family: Steps to Planning a Family Reunion. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1991. (GT 2423 B76 1990).
Detailed instructions on how to plan the reunion. Examples are provided of forms and letters used.

Burke, Bernard. A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage, the Privy Council, Knightage and Companionage. 67th ed. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1905. (CS 420 B8 1905).
Valuable to the genealogist for its historical, with full lineage, coverage of British peerage.

Burke's Peerage & Baronetage. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999. 106th ed. 2 vol. (Ref CS 420 B85 1999).
Detailed, and comprehensive, genealogical pedigree listings of British peers.

Cerny, Johni. Ancestry's Guide to Research: Case Studies in American Genealogy. Salt Lake City, Ancestry, 1985. (CS 49 C46 1985)
An excellent source, with examples, of how to do genealogy. The author uses a case method in which actual examples are discussed. Chapters discuss such areas as tracing a lineage, ancestors with common names, tracing lineage through burned records, racing women, etc.

Chapman, Colin R. Weights, Money and Other Measures Used by Our Ancestors. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1996.v (QC 89 G8 C6 1996).
A detailed look at historical measurements. Although not written originally for the genealogist this source will be useful in genealogical work.

Coldham, Peter W. The Complete Book of Emigrants, 1607-1776: a Comprehensive Listing Compiled from English Public Records of Those Who Took Ship to the Americas for Political, Religious, and Economic Reasons; of Those Who Were Deported for Vagrancy, Roguery, or Non-Conformity; and of Those Who Were Sold to Labour in the New Colonies. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1987-1993. 4 vol. (Ref E 184 B7 C59 1987).
Compiled from English records. Arranged by date. Information includes source of record and the ship on which the person sailed. Comprehensivd name index.

Cutter, William R. New England Families, Genealogical and Memorial: A Record of the Achievements of Her People in the Making of Commonwealths and the Founding of a Nation. Baltimore: Clearfield Company, 1997 reprint of the 1915 ed. [1st series], 4 vol. (F 3 C99 1997).
Genealogical information on New England families. The 3rd series, in four volumes, is @ F 3 C993 1997. The final volume in each series includes an index.

Dating Old Photographs, 1840-1929. Toronto, Ont.: Family Chronicle, 2000. (TR 147 D38 2000).
Following a short discussion on dating photographs most of this work has pictures, by era, of known dates and individuals.

Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage: Comprises Information Concerning the Royal Family, the Peerage and Baronetage. London: Debrett's Peerage Limited, 2000. (Ref CS 420 D43 2000).
Covers much of the same information as the Burke entry (above).

Digested Summary and Alphabetical List of Private Claims Which Have Been Presented to the House of Representatives From the First to the Thirty-First Congress, Exhibiting the Action of Congress on Each Claim, With References to the Journals, Reports, Bills, etc., Elucidating its Progress. Compiled by Order of the House of Representatives. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1970 reprint of the 1853 ed. 3 vol. (KF 4932 A25 1970).
This is a facsimile of the original work listing ca. 60,000 individuals that had private claims to the federal government. A lot of these were military but included areas as land, property, etc. Originally printed as House Miscellaneous Documents, Serial Set numbers 653-655 of the 32nd Congress, 1st Session. Arranged alphabetically by surname the claims include categories of nature of the claim, Congress and Session number, how presented to the House, page entered into House Journal, House Committee handling the claim, number or date of a report,"nature of the report," bill number, how the House or Senate disposed of the bill, and the date the bill became law. In 1881, as Senate Miscellaneous Document 14 of the 46th Congress, 3rd Session, Serial Set numbers 1945-1946 the Senate printed List of Private Claims Brought Before the Senate of the United States From the Commencement of the fourteenth Congress to the Close of the Forty-Sixth Congress. This complements the House volumes.

The Draper Manuscript Collection. Madison, Wisc.: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1740-1891. (Microform Area. Microfilm and Microfiche)
A series of primary source material in 491 volumes. There are guides to some of the individual series. An overall guide entitled Guide to the Draper Manuscripts by Josephine L. Harper is @ Ref F 586 D7 H37 1983. A handout entitled "Draper Manuscripts" is available at the Public Services Desk. The area covered is the old frontier which includes western Virginia. Sources include such document types as letters, interviews, deeds, military and business records, etc.

Fire Insurance Maps from the Sanborn Map Company Archives. Virginia: Late 19th Century to 1989 . Bethesda, Md.: University Publications of America, 1991. (Microform Area. Microfilm #1168-1178).
This microfilmed source has maps from Virginia cities. They are useful in determining the historical arrangement of the cities along with property values.

Kemp, Thomas J. International Vital Records Handbook. 4th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 2000. (Ref CS 42.7 K46 2000).
This is patterned on Kemp's Vital Records Handbook (noted below). In addition to United States states and territories Kemp includes information on ca. 200 countries throughout the world.

Sperry, Kip. Reading Early American Handwriting. [Baltimore]: Genealogical Publishing, 1998. (NK 3620 R43 1998).
This useful book has chapters discussing areas as terms, numerals, dates, how to read old documents, sample alphabets and handwriting styles, etc. One appendix discusses what is available on the Internet. A bibliography lists additional useful sources. The main portion of this work has a series of original documents and examples of their transcription.

Stryker-Rodda, Harriet. Understanding Colonial Handwriting. rev. ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1986. (Z 115 A58 S81986).
Following a discussion of early American handwriting the author provides examples of how individual letter were formed along with words and signatures.

United States. Public Health Service. Where to Write for Vital Records: Births, Deaths, Marriages, and Divorces. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1990. (Gov Doc HE20.6210/2:990).
Arranged by state or territory. Information includes where to write, the cost (which could vary today), and any comments, e.g. dates of vital record holdings.

Willard, Jim. Ancestors: A Beginner's Guide to Family History and Genealogy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997. (CS 16 W526 1997).
Published as a companion to a PBS series entitled Ancestors. Ten chapters look at various areas of beginning genealogy work.

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Census

Carrier Library has most of the major guides to using census materials. Examples include the Bureau of the Census catalog of publications which includes the Dubester number sequence. The volumes by Schulze provide detailed indexing to information available in the census materials and are coded by Dubester number. Thorndale has compiled an impressive collection of census maps by state. This is very useful for determining what county(s) existed in a given decennial count. Three entries include information on the Soundex system used in some indexing for the U. S. Census. Finally, the National Archives publishes a series of guides to the specific rolls of microfilm. Although these are not available in the circulating collection they are available for use in the Interlibrary Loan office in Carrier Library.

Agricultural and Manufacturing Census for Fifteen States for the Years 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880, State of Virginia. (Microform Area. Microfilm # 1057-1064).
These are special census reports for the noted years. Our objective was to have Rockingham County reports. Each reel includes many additional counties in Virginia.

Bentley, Elizabeth P., comp. Index to the 1810 Census of Virginia. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1980. (Ref F 225 B46).
Information given is the county of residence and the census schedule page number.

Chapman, Colin R. Pre-1841 Censuses & Population Listings in the British Isles. 4th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1994. (HA 1125 C43 1994).
A guide to British census records before the major 1841 census. Information back to the sixteenth century is provided.

Cook, Kevin L. Dubester's U.S. Census Bibliography With SuDocs Class Numbers and Indexes. Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1996. (Ref HA 214 C66 1996).
Following a reprinting of Dubester's Catalog of United States Census Publications, 1790-1945 Cook has listed the Dubester numbers and given the SuDoc classification numbers. Indexes include title, subject, and SuDoc categories. Useful for assisting in locating the historical census on the shelves.

Felldin, Jeanne R., comp. Index to the 1820 Census of Virginia. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1976. (Ref F 225 F4).
Information given is the county of residence and the census schedule page number.

"Genealogy Notes." Prologue 4 (Winter 1972): 242-246.
The available census schedules, by state and decennial date, are listed for 1790-1880. Census schedule contents, by each decennial, are also provided.

Greene, Evarts B. American Population Before the Federal Census of 1790. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1966 reprint of the 1932 ed. (HB 3505 G7 1966).
Arranged by state this bibliography lists various types of census sources. Tax lists, militia rolls, etc. are used. Comprehensive.

Hamilton, Ann B. Researcher's Guide to United States Census Availability, 1790-1920. 2nd ed. Bowie, Md.: Heritage Books, 1992. (CS 49 H36 1992)
Intoductory material includes an overview of using the census, Soundex guide, and various abbreviations. The main portion of this book is by state and county. It lists for each decennial census year the availability and/or status of the census.

"History and Organization of the Vital Statistics System: Historical Development." in Vital Statistics of the United States. Vol. 1. Analysis and Summary Tables.... Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1954. p. 2-19. (Storage 1 HA 203 A22 1950 pt. 1).
Although some of the discussion centers on vital records this has interest also for its excellent presentation on census reporting in this country. Important for its rationale.

Hotten, John C., ed. The Original Lists of Persons of Quality: Emigrants ... Who Went From Great Britain to the American Plantations 1600-1700 .... Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1968 reprint of the 1880 ed. (E 187.5 H7945).
A reprint with a wide range of lists. Virginia is well represented. Considered by some authorities to be the "first census of Virginia."

Kemp, Thomas J. The American Census Handbook. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 2001. (Ref CS 49 K4 2001).
This reference book acts as a guide to published census indexes in the United States. The arrangement is by state with general indexes listed first by census year. They are followed by a list of indexes by county. Internet based indexes are noted with the site address. Following the state listings there are military and ethnic listings including African, Chinese, Dutch, Franco, Irish, etc. groups.

Lainhart, Ann S. State Census Records. [Baltimore]: Genealogical Publishing, 1992. (Ref CS 68 L35 1992).
Arranged by state this source lists when state censuses were taken and where they are available.

Parker, J. Carlyle. City, County, Town, and Township Index to the 1850 Federal Census Schedules. Detroit: Gale Research, 1979. (CS 65 P37).
Arranged alphabetically by county name. Information includes the state, National Archives and Mormon Church genealogy department code numbers, and microfilm reel numbers.

Platt, Lyman D. Census Records for Latin America and the Hispanic United States. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1998. (Ref CS 95 P63 1998).
This guide is arranged by country. For Mexico the arrangement is broken down into the individual states. The information provided includes the locality, province, year(s) of coverage, and a reference to where the census is held.

Schulze, Suzanne. Population Information in Nineteen Century Census Volumes. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx, 1983. (HA 215 S38 P6 1983).
Detailed listing of the contents of all census publications, 1790-1890. The volume is arranged by "Dubester" numbers. Comprehensive.

Schulze, Suzanne. Population Information in Twentieth Century Census Volumes, 1900-1940. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx, 1985. (HA 215 S38 P62 1985).
Schulze continues the nineteen century volume with the "Dubester" number system. Comprehensive.

Schulze, Suzanne. Population Information in Twentieth Century Census Volumes, 1950-1980. Tucson, Ariz.: Oryx, 1988. (HA 215 S38 P63 1988).
Detailed information on all census publications for the time period covered. Comprehensive.

Stephenson, Charles. "The Methodology of Historical Census Record Linkage: a User's Guide to the Soundex." Prologue 12 (Fall 1980): 151-153.
Also published in Journal of Family History 5 (Spring 1980): 112-115. Discussion, with examples, of the Soundex indexing system for the U. S. Census.

Stephenson, Charles. "Training Those Who Left: Mobility Studies and the Soundex Indexes to the U.S. Census." Journal of Urban History 1 (November 1974): 73-84.
Discussion of the Soundex indexing system to the U.S. Census. Theoretical. Advanced.

Steuart, Bradley W., ed. The Soundex Reference Guide. [Bountiful, Utah]: Precision Indexing, 1990. (Ref CS 49 S64 1990).
This guide attempts to offer comprehensive coverage of how to use Soundex for census records. Over 125,000 surnames are listed and coded for Soundex.

Thorndale, William, and Dollarhide, William. Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790-1920. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1987. (Ref G 1201 F7 T5 1987).
Following a detailed introduction the guide is arranged by state. Each decennial census date has a map superimposed upon the present state. Scholarly.

United States. Bureau of the Census. 200 Years of U.S. Census Taking: Population and Housing Questions, 1790-1990. Washington, D.C.: The Bureau, 1989. (Gov Doc C 3.2 T93).
A detailed look at each census and the questions that were asked.

United States. Bureau of the Census. Bureau of the Census Catalog of Publications, 1790-1972. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of the Census, 1974. (Ref HA 205 D82 1974).
Comprehensive listing of all Census Bureau publications for the years covered. The period from 1790-1945 was compiled by Henry J. Dubester and the entries are enumerated by "Dubester" number. Some guides and bibliographies cite this Dubester number.

United States. Bureau of the Census. A Century of Population Growth, from the First Census of the United States to the Twelfth, 1790-1900. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1967. (Ref HA 195 A5 1969).
Scholarly presentation of the census, its objectives, and growth, to 1900. Tables and statistical analysis.

United States. Bureau of the Census. Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1790: Records of the State Enumerations 1782-1785, Virginia. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1908. (F 225 U6).
The 1790 and 1800 decennial censuses for Virginia were destroyed. This census material (1782 and 1785) for Virginia has been reprinted.

Virginia in 1720: A Reconstructed Census. Miami Beach, Fla.: TLC Genealogy, 1998. (Ref F 225 V53 1998)
Ca. 22,000 names are listed alphabetically in this indexed source. Primary records, e.g. deeds, wills, tax lists, order books, etc. were listed. Sixty-one indexed sources are listed in an introduction and are keyed to each individual.

Virginia in 1740: A Reconstructed Census. Miami Beach, Fla.: T.L.C. Genealogy, 1992. (Ref F 230 V57 1992).
Over 25,000 names from 131 sources are in this alphabetically arranged book. This book is based on deeds, wills, tax lists, order books, etc. County of residence is noted along with the source of information.

Virginia in 1760: A Reconstructed Census. Miami Beach, Fla.: T.L.C. Genealogy, 1996. (Ref F 225 V873 1996).
Over 46,000 names from 89 sources are listed in this source. The records are based on the same type of sources as noted in the 1740 entry (first entry above).

Yantis, Netti S. The 1787 Census of Virginia: an Accounting of the Name of Every White Male Tithable Over 21 Years... .Springfield, Va.: Genealogical Books in Print, 1987. 3 vol. (Ref F 225 Y36 1987).
Vitally important source for the genealogist of Virginia families because the 1790 Virginia census has been destroyed. Arranged by county and city. Data includes person on the tax list, number of white males between the ages of 16 and 21, slaves over 16, slaves under 16, horses, cattle, and miscellaneous notes.

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Church History and Records

This section generally lists materials either as examples of church histories from Rockingham County or reference sources of main line denominations found within this County. Other sections of the handout contain information on religion and genealogy, e.g. Parish Registers and the sections on Guides and Bibliographies. Finally, Bible records, when available, can be of critical importance. The Virginiana section (above) includes one example of a bibliography of Bible records held by the Virginia State Library. Historical and Genealogical societies frequently will have files of Bible records from their area or membership.

Axelson, Edith F. A Guide to Episcopal Church Records in Virginia. Athens, Ga.: Iberian Publishing, 1988. (Ref F 225 A93 1988).
A brief history, with lines of parish descent, introduces this guide. The main portion of the work is arranged by county and then parishes and churches. Comprehensive.

Bolls, Kate M. Cooks Creek Presbyterians: a Heritage of Faith. Harrisonburg, Va.: Park View Press, 1965. (Sp Coll BX 9211 C75 B6 1965).
Example of a church history.

The Brethren Encyclopedia. Philadelphia: Brethren Encyclopedia, 1983. 3 vol. (Ref BX 7821.2 B74 1983).
Scholarly, illustrated encyclopedia. Individuals and family information is included. Bibliographies.

Brunk, Harry A. History of Mennonites in Virginia. Staunton, Va.: McClure, 1959-1972. 2 vol. (BX 8117 V5 B7).
Denomination history providing congregational and individual information. Scholarly.

Cocke, Charles F. Parish Lines, Diocese ofVirginia. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1967. (BX 5918 V8 C6).
Episcopalian Church parish history. Parish maps. Scholarly. Companion volumes include Parish Lines Diocese of Southern Virginia (BX 5918 S92 C6 1964) and Parish Lines Diocese of Southwestern Virginia (BX 5918 S922 C6).

Hinshaw, William W. Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1994 reprint of the 1936 ed. 7 vol. (E 184 F89 H52 1994).
Early monthly meeting records are available in this source. Valuable for its early records of marriages and deaths. Virginia records are in volume 6. The final volume is an index of personal names for the complete set.

Humling, Virginia. U.S. Catholic Sources: a Diocesan Research Guide. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1995. (Ref CD 3065 H86 1995).
Arranged by state Humling describes the dioceses in this country and notes how and where their information is found.

Humphrey, John T. Understanding and Using Baptismal Records. Washington, D.C.: Humphrey Publications, 1996. (CD 3065 H87 1996).
A scholarly work. The author has several chapter in which baptism records in general are discussed. This followed by a discussion of several faith's and their baptismal records. Finally the author discusses problems in locating and understanding the records.

Kirkham, E. Kay. A Survey of American Church Records (Major and Minor Denominations) (Before 1880-1890): Religious Migations of Some of the Major Denominations. IV ed. Logan, Utah: Everton, 1978. (Ref CD 3065 K5 1978).
About forty denominations are discussed with an overview of their historical progression in this country. Kirkham follows this with some migration information. The final section is arranged by state in which information is given including where the records of (some) congregations is provided.

Mead, Frank S. Handbook of Denominations in the United States. 11th ed. Nashville: Abingdon, 2001. (BR 516.5 M38 2001).
Brief, historical, information about the major denominations in this country. Contains a bibliography.

Meade, William. Old Churches, Ministers and Families of Virginia. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1897. 2 vol. (F 225 M49 also: Internet Electronic Edition).
Useful as an introduction to early church history and records in Virginia.

The Mennonite Encyclopedia; a Comprehensive Reference Work on the Anabaptist-Mennonite Movement. Hillsboro, Kan.: Mennonite Brethren Publishing House, 1955-1959. 4 vol. (Ref BX 8106 M37).
Includes individual and family names. Scholarly. Bibliographies.

Rosenberger, Francis C. "German Church Records of the Shenandoah Valley as a Genealogical Source." The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 66 (April 1958): [195-200.
In addition to a scholarly article discussing the records there is a list of the churches and dates of records held.

Sappington, Roger E. The Brethren in Virginia: the History of the Church of the Brethren in Virginia. Harrisonburg, [Va.]: Committee for Brethren History in Virginia, 1973. (Sp Coll BX 7817 V8 S26).
Example of a denomination history containing individual names and congregational information.

Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches. Nashville, Tenn.: Abingdon. annual. (Ref BR 513 Y4).
Published since 1916 by various publishers this directory is valuable for its information on the various religious denominations and for its listing of major depositories of archival materials.

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Land and Land Grants

Land grant records can have value to the genealogist. The citations in this section are generally for Virginia. Smith's work, in process, covers the land grant system after the formation of the United States. Szucs work (Guide section) contains a masterful discussion of this topic.

Barr, Charles B. Townships and Legal Description of Land. 2nd ed. Independence, Mo.: Charles B. Barr, 1992. (CS 49 B35 1992).
Barr's main emphasis is on a description of land that was originally part of the public domain. He does have some information on land that is described as metes and bounds, i.e. Virginia and some other states. Heavily illustrated, this book discusses how the genealogist understands the land system in the United States.

Carter, Fran. Searching American Land and Deed Records. Bountiful, Utah: American Genealogical Lending Library, 1995. (CS 42.7 C37 1995).
A short discussion with concise definitions of the terminology of land and deed records. A glossary completes the work.

Harrison, Fairfax. Virginia Land Grants: A Study in Conveyancing in Relation to Colonial Politics. Richmond: Privately Printed, The Old Dominion Press, 1925. (Microform Area. LAC 14449).
This book looks at the early law and practice of Virginia land grants. One chapter discusses the North Neck Proprietary grant. A detailed, and lengthy, list of sources notes is printed.

Hone, E. Wade. Land & Property Research in the United States. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1997. (Ref CS 49 H66 1997).
This masterful book takes a comprehensive look at land records of the United States. Sections include pre-U.S. possessions, state-land states (as Virginia), federal-land states, individual lands, and American Indian lands. Detailed information with examples and bibliographies. Appendices include tract book and township plat map guides and land office boundary maps for federal land series.

Kaylor, Peter C. Abstract of Land Grant Surveys, 1761-1791. Harrisonburg, Va.: Rockingham Historical Society, 1938. (Sp Coll & Circulating Coll F 232 R7 K38).
Surveys for Augusta and Rockingham counties. Lists who the survey was done for, the land location, and owner(s) of adjoining land. Indexed.

Lackey, Richard. "The Genealogist's First Look at Federal Records." Prologue 9 (Spring 1977): 43-45.
Excellent, brief, overview of federal land records and the key sources that discuss these records.

Leary, Henel F.M., ed. North Carolina Research: Genealogy and Local History. Raleigh, N.C.: North Carolina Genealogical Society, 1996. 2nd ed. (Ref CS 49 N67 1996).
Chapter seven of this guide is entitled "Mapping." It is an excellent guide to the metes and bounds system of land platting.

McMullin, Phillip W. Grassroots of America: A Computerized Index to the American State Papers: Land Grants and Claims (1789-1837) With Other Aids to Research. (Government Document Serial Set Numbers 28 Through 36). Greenville, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, 1994 reprint of the 1972 ed. (J 33 M3 1994)
The title gives the parameters of this book's coverage. Useful to the genealogist because of the listing of surnames indexed to the land grants in the Serial Set's American State Papers. This material is in Class 8 (public lands) and Class 9 (Claims). Coverage is the states that joined the United States beginning in 1789. Carrier Library has the American State Papers in microformat.

Nugent, Nell M. Cavaliers and Pioneers: Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1934-1999. 7 vol. (Ref F 225 N842).
Land grants and patents given from 1623-1776.

Price, Edward T. Dividing the Land: Early American Beginnings of Our Private Property Mosaic. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1995. (GA 109.5 P75 1995).
Valuable to the genealogist for its scholarly presentation of how land was transferred in the Colonial period.

Robinson, W. Stitt, Jr. Mother Earth: Land Grants in Virginia, 1607-1699. Williamsburg, Va.: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corporation, 1957. (F 229 J36 no. 12).
This short book contains an excellent bibliography on Virginia and early land grants.

Sims Index to Land Grants in West Virginia. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 2003 reprint of the 1952 ed. (HD 211 W4 S56 2003).
Land grants are arranged by county and include grants by Lord Fairfax, by the Commonwealth of Virginia, and by the State of West Virginia under its first Constitution. Information includes grantee, acres of the grant, local description, the year of the grant, and the grant book volume with page number. Virginia counties bordering West Virginia are included with some land grant information. A supplement includes Rockingham County records.

Smith, Clifford N. Federal Land Series; a Calendar of Archival Materials on the Land Patents Issued by the United States Government, with Subject, Tract, and Name Indexes. Chicago: American Library Association, 1972- . in process. (KF 5675 A73 S6).
Records are not included from the original thirteen states. An index to original land grants from the Federal Government.

Virginia State Library. Archives and Records Division. Virginia Land Office Inventory. 3rd ed. Richmond: The Library, 1981. (Ref CD 3566 L36 V57 1981).
Brief records of Virginia State Library land record holdings.

Yoshpe, Harry P., comp. Preliminary Inventory of the Land Entry Papers of the General Land Office. San Jose, Calif.: Rose Family Association, 1996 reprint of the 1949 ed. (CD 3041 G47 1996).
Published originally by the National Archives this book is a guide to Archives records for military bounty-land warrants and records listed by state and district land offices. Appendices list the laws pertaining to land records and an index to the land offices by state.

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Tax Records

Carroll, Cornelius. The Beginner's Guide to Using Tax Lists. [Baltimore]: Clearfield Company, 1997, 1998 reprint of the 1996 ed. (CS 49 C397 1998).
This book offers a brief discussion of using tax lists in genealogical research. Examples of tax lists are appended.

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Immigration, Emigration, Migration

The following sources include general studies of European emigration, migration within the United States, and several reference sources useful to detmine further information on this topic.

Anuta, Michael J. Ships of Our Ancestors. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1983. (VM 381 A58 1991).
The main focus of this book is a series of photographs of major ships carrying immigrants to the new world. The ships were built between 1837 and 1959. The illustrations have the picture, the ship name, date it was built, the ship company (ownership) and the respository owning the picture. A list of the steamship lines and a bibliography complete this book.

Coldham, Peter W. The Complete Book of Emigrants, 1607-1776: a Comprehensive Listing Compiled from English Public Records of Those Who Took Ship to the Americas for Political, Religious, and Economic Reasons; of Those Who Were Deported for Vagrancy, Roguery, or Non-Conformity; and of Those Who Were Sold to Labour in the New Colonies. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1987-1993. 4 vol. (Ref E 184 B7 C59 1987).
Compiled from English records. Arranged by date. Information includes source of record and the ship the person sailed on. Comprehensive name index.

Cordasco, Franesco, ed. Dictionary of American Immigration History. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1990. (Ref JV 6450 D53 1990).
Arranged alphabetically by subject this source includes brief bibliographies with the entries. Nations, individuals, organizations, religious groups, etc. are listed.

Daniels, Roger. Coming to America: a History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life. New York: HarperCollins, 1990. (E 184 A1 D26 1990).
A scholarly work that covers immigration from the beginning of the colonial period to the present day. Statistical materials and a bibliography are featured.

Dollarhide, William. Map Guide to American Migration Routes, 1735-1815. Bountiful, Utah: AGLL Genealogical Services, 1997. (HB 1952 D644 1997).
This book offers a brief introduction to major road migration routes into the early national period of American history. A number of maps and illustrations are useful to see the flow into the frontier areas. A bibliography lists additional works. Useful, but very brief.

Eldridge, Carrie. An Atlas of Appalachian Trails to the Ohio River. Huntington, W. Va.: Printed by CDM Printing, 1998. (Oversize GV 1045.5 A44 E52 1998).
Maps, along with a discussion, are the emphasis of this book. This source is useful to the genealogist seeking to know more about how and where their ancestor's traveled prior to 1800.

Flanders, Stephen A. Atlas of American Migration. New York: Facts on File, 1998. (G 1201 E27 F5 1998).
Arranged chronologically, this atlas includes illustrations and commentary on American migration patterns. Useful especially as an overview of American historical migration.

Gerhan, David R., comp. A Retrospective Bibliography of American Demographic History from Colonial Times to 1983. New York: Greenwood, 1989. (HB 3505 G4 1989).
A comprehensive bibliiography of over 9100 entries on a wide range of sources. Demograpy, families, health and death, migrations, etc. are covered. Books, articles, and government documents are included. A supplement for 1984-1994 is at Ref HB 3505 G438 1995.

Hansen, Marcus L. The Atlantic Migration, 1607-1860: a History of the Continuing Settlement of the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1940. (JV 6451 H3).
A comprehensive study with notes and bibliography.

Heisey, John W. American Migration Guide. Indianapolis, Ind.: Heritage House, 1985. (CS 49 H43 1985).
This brief discussion includes a chapter on how to trace migrations, and a chronology from 1607 to 1941 of historical events that include incidents of importance for migration history. Three maps of the United States locate some of the main waterways and canals, trails and roads, and 19th century railroads.

Hotten, John C., ed. The Originial Lists of Persons of Quality; Emigrants, Religious Exiles; Political Rebels; Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years; Apprentices; Children Stolen; Maidens Pressed and Others Who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations 1600-1700. With Their Ages, the Localities Where They Formerly Lived in the Mother Country, the Names of the Ships in Which They Embarked, and Other Interesting Particulars. From Mss. Preserved in the State Paper Department of Her Majesty's Public Record Office, England. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1962 reprint ed. (E 187.5 H7945).
Primary source documentation. Much of the information includes Virginia immigration.

Miller, Wayne C. A Comprehensive Bibliography for the Study of American Minorities. New York: New York University Press, 1976. 2 vol. (E 184 A1 M5).
A major bibliography covering all areas of the world. This lists sources in all subject areas. It includes historical, bibliographical, and periodical sources.

Moody, Suzanna, ed. The Immigration History Research Center: a Guide to Collections. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991. (E 184 A1 U58 1991).
This guide is for the Immigration History Research Center at the University of Minnesota. It is arranged by national and ethnic groups. Types of materials include manuscripts, monographs, and newspapers.

Nugent, Walter. Crossings: the Great Transatlantic Migrations, 1870-1914. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1992. (JV 6465 N84 1992).
A scholarly work on European emigration from 1870-1914. Useful to the genealogist for its study of individual European countries. It contains a major bibliography.

Rouse, Parke, Jr. The Great Wagon Road from Philadelphia to the South. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973. (E 188 R85).
A scholarly work that covers the area of early frontier period in colonial America.

Sale, Randall D. American Expansion: a Book of Maps. Lincoln, Nebr.: University of Nebraska, 1962. (G 1201 S1 S2 1979).
This book has maps of the United States in ten year increments from 1790-1900 showing the expansion of the country. In addition to the text information Sale includes such material as population per square mile, land office locations, and disputed areas. Additional map information includes rivers, trails, and railroads.

Segal, Aaron. An Atlas of International Migration. London: Hans Zell, 1993. (G 1046 E47 S4 1993).
Arranged in sections of human migrations, voluntary migrations, involuntary migrations, world's major diasporas, and global migration characteristics this scholarly study covers both the historical and current areas. A glossary and bibliography compllet the atlas.

Tanner, Helen H., ed. The Settling of North America: the Atlas of the Great Migrations Into North America From the Ice Age to the Present. New York: Macmillan, 1995. (Ref G 1106 E27 S4 1995).
A heavily illustrated atlas to migration. The emphasis is upon internal migration. A necessary source for genealogical work on migration within the United States.

Thernstrom, Stephan, ed. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1980. (E 184 A1 H35).
A scholarly study arranged by country and ethnic group. The articles contain statistics and a major bibliography of sources. Comprehensive.

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Passenger Lists

Passenger arrival records can be useful for determining when, and where, the first ancestor arrived in the United States. Carrier Library has several of the major bibliographic sources for this material.

Colletta, John P. They Came in Ships: a Guide to Finding Your Immigrant Ancestor's Arrival Record. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1993. (CS 49 C63 1993).
A comprehensive guide with information on where the sources are located, passenger lists by date, and how to search for unindexed lists.

Filby, P. William, ed. Passenger and Immigration Lists Bibliography, 1538-1900: Being a Guide to Published Lists of Arrivals in the United States and Canada. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Research, 1988. (CS 47 F54 1988).
This is an annotated bibliography listing published sources of passenger lists. It should be used with the Passenger and Immigration Lists Index (multivolumes) @ CS 68 P363.

Morton Allan Directory of European Passenger Steamship Arrivals for the Years 1890 to 1930 at the Port of New York and for the Years 1904 to 1926 at the Ports of New York, Philadelphia, Boston and Baltimore. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1998 reprint of the 1931 ed. (HE 945 A2 D5 1998).
Information includes the shipping line, place of disembarkment and arrival, date of arrival, and steamer name. This source is useful if you are able to determine the name of the passenger ship but not its date of arrival. This can aid in aiding in knowing which passenger lists to check.

Ptak, Diane S. A Passage in Time:The Ships That Brought Our Ancestors. Diane Snyder Ptak: Albany, N.Y., 1992. (VM 381 P77 1992).
Useful to the genealogist for the author's listing of passenger ship texts, periodicals on ship passengers, major archives and libraries, and general sources on passenger ships.

Tepper, Michael. American Passenger Arrival Records: a Guide to the Records of Immigrants Arriving at American Ports by Sail and Steam. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1988. (Ref CS 49 T46 1988).
Discussion on how and where to find the passenger arrival records. An appendix includes a "Checklist of Passenger List Publications." Historical approach.

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Parish Registers

Major British and Irish register indexes are noted here. Additional information will be located in the Church History and Virginiana sections. Parish registers can give vital record type information with baptism, christening, confirmation, etc. data.

Humphery-Smith, Cecil R., ed. The Phillimore Atlas and Index of Parish Registers. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1984. (Ref CS 434 P55 1984).
A series of maps with parish boundaries is featured. Notes where register copies are located.

Mitchell, Brian. A Guide to Irish Parish Registers. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1988. (CD 1118.5 A1 M58 1988).
All Irish parishes are recorded. Dates of the earliest records are noted.

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Heraldry

Heraldry as a component of genealogical research is represented here by several volumes of European coat-of-arms titles and one depicting Virginia connections. The book by Doane (see Guide section) has an excellent introduction to the use of heraldry and its relationship to genealogy.

Crozier, William A. Virginia Heraldica, Being a Registry of Virginia Gentry Entitled to Coat Armor, With Genealogical Notes of the Families. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Southern Book, 1953. (F 225 C92 1953).
Alphabetical arrangement. Not illustrated.

Fairbairn, James. Fairbairn's Crests of the Families of Great Britain and Ireland. Edinburgh: Inglis & Jack, [18--]. 2 vol. (Sp Coll CR 57 G7 F2 1800z)
Classic work with over 30,000 alphabetically arranged names. Volume 1 includes a glossary and list of mottoes. Volume 2 contains plates of crests, flags, etc.

Fox-Davies, Arthur C. The Art of Heraldry: an Encyclopedia of Armory. New York: B. Blom, [1968]. (Ref CR 21 F7 1968).
Comprehensive discussion. Profusely illustrated.

Fox-Davies, Arthur C. A Complete Guide to Heraldry. Rev. ed. [London]: Nelson. [1969]. (CR 21 F73 1969).
Comprehensive coverage of heraldry. Topical chapters with detailed discussion. Illustrated.

Parker, James. A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry. New ed. Rutland, Vt: C E. Tuttle, [1970]. (Ref CR 1618 P3 1970).
Illustrated.

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Surnames and Place-Names

For most genealogists the sources listed here will offer assistance in learning more about their family names and how they may have changed both in Europe, and when they immigrated to the United States. Additional place-name information is found in the Atlas/Gazetteer section (below) and in entries by Hall, Hanson, and the Virginia Division of Mineral Resources in the Virginiana section (above).

American Council of Learned Societies. "Report of Committee on Linguistic and National Stocks in the Population of the United States." in: Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1931. vol. 1: Proceedings. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1932. p. 103-441. (E 172 A60 1931 v.1).
An important, scholarly, study by national group. The study centers around surnames at the 1790 census. Bibliography included.

Ingraham, Holly. People's Names: A Cross-Cultural Reference Guide to the Proper Use of Over 40,000 Personal and Familial Names in Over 100 Cultures. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1997. (Ref CS 2305 I54 1997)
This source features international coverage of names. Within each group it lists feminine and masculine names along with surnames. Following the listing of "contemporary" names there are sections on historical names from throughout the world.

Ptak, Diane S. Surnames: Their Meanings and Origins. Albany, N.Y.: Diane Snyder Ptak, 1993. (CS 2385 P82 1993)
Following a discussion on surnames and how they came into being there is a discussion by national group. The national group discussion includes bibliographical references.

Reaney, Percy H. A Dictionary of British Surnames. London: Routledge and Paul, [1958]. (Ref CS 2385 R4 1970).
Monumental compilation of names with historical antecendents. Scholarly.

Reaney, Percy H. The Origin of English Place-Names. London: Routledge and Paul, [1960,1969]. (DA 645 R4).
Scholarly presentation. Detailed.

Rose, Christine, comp. Nicknames: Past and Present; A List of Nicknames for Given Names Used in the Past and Present Time. 2nd ed. San Jose, Calif.: [Rose Family Association], 1995. (CS 2377 R664 1995).
Hundreds of names are listed. Arranged by female and male names.

Sealock, Richard B. Bibliography of Place-Name Literature: United States and Canada. 3rd ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982. (Ref E 155 S4 1982).
A comprehensive bibliography of 4,830 entries. Arranged by state and province with chapters on general topics and gazetteers. Brief annotations.

Smith, Elsdon C. American Surnames. Philadelphia: Chilton Book, [1969]. (CS 2485 S63).
Scholarly study of American names. European origins are emphasized.

Smith, Elsdon C. New Dictionary of American Family Names. New York: Harper & Row, [1973]. (CS 2481 S55 1973).
Common surnames are listed with national and origin of the name noted.

Watts, Victor, ed. The Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names: Based on the Collections of the English Place-Name Society. New Yorik: Cambridge University, 2004.(Ref DA 640 C36 2004).
This book offers comprehensive coverage of English place names.

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Atlases/Gazetteers

Atlases are required in genealogical research to show where a family originated, where they emigrated to, and to note the political changes over a given time period. This is equally important for American and European research. The Lathrop atlas is an example of county atlases that were being produced in the last half of the nineteenth century. The atlases by Shepherd and The Times are excellent for international coverage. Doran's atlas is useful for demonstrating Virginia county changes. The Thorndale volume (see Census section) covering the decennial periods 1790-1920 notes boundary changes for United States counties.

Bahn, Gilbert S. American Place Names of Long Ago: A Republication of the Index to Cram's Unrivaled Atlas of the World as Based on the Census of 1890. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1998 reprint of the 1898 ed. (Ref E 154 C7 1998 index).
This source acts as a guide to 1890 information on American cities and towns. Arranged by state and then place. Information includes population size and the region of the state where located.

The Columbia Gazetteer of the World. New York.: Columbia University, 2008. (Ref G 103.5 C65 2008).
The standard international gazetteer with ca. 170,000 names. Detailed, including historical, information. A 1998 edition, with ca. 163,000 entries is @ G 103.5 C65 1998. A 1962 edition entitled The Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World @ Ref G 103 L7 1962 contains ca. 130,000 names.

Doran, Michael F. Atlas of County Boundary Changes in Virginia, 1634-1895. Athens, Ga.: Iberian, 1987. (Ref G 1291 F7 D6 1987).
Following an introductory discussion of county boundary changes there are maps covering ten year cycles showing the boundary changes.

Early American Gazetteer, 1833 and 1853 Editions. [Provo, Utah]: GenRef, 1996. (CD-ROM).
The text of two early American gazetteers is available on this CD-ROM. Information includes political, geographical, geologic, and various historical sites.

Gannett, Henry. A Gazetteer of Virginia and West Virginia. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1980 reprint in one volume of the two-volume 1904 ed. (Ref F 224 G19 1980).
Comprehensive listing of geologic and place name information in the two states. Names are those currently in use in 1904.

Grundset, Eric G.Historical Boundary Atlas of ..... Fairfax, Va.: Grundset, 1999. 4 vol. (Ref G 1291 S1 G78/G782/G783/G784).
These atlases present the changing county boundaries from the earliest Colonial period into the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Arranged by time period the maps include rivers and some commentary on the maps. The four volumes are 1) Virginia's Tidewater and Chesapeake Counties, 2) Southside Virginia, 3) Central Virginia, and 4) Potomac, Shenandoah, and Rappahannock Valleys of Virginia and West Virginia.

Hale, John S. A Historical Atlas of Colonial Virginia. Verona, Va.: McClure, 1978. (Sp Coll G 1290 H16).
Twenty maps, with commentary, cover the years 1585-1778. Scholarly.

Historical Geography: American & Virginian. (Public Services Desk Handout Racks).
Handout developed by Gordon W. Miller with comprehensive coverage of Carrier Library sources.

Lathrop, J. M., and Griffing, B. N. An Atlas of Rockingham County, Virginia: from actual Surveys. Philadelphia: D.J. Lake, 1885. (Sp Coll G 1293 R7 L3 1885).
The first full atlas of Rockingham County. Serves as an example of the type of atlas available for most United States counties. A 1982 reprint is also available in the reference collection.

Maryland. State Planning Commission. Gazetteer of Maryland. [Baltimore: s.n.], 1941. (F 179 M36).
Comprehensive listings. Towns and geologic sites.

Mitchell, Brian. A New Genealogical Atlas of Ireland. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 2002. (Ref G 1831 F7 M5 2002).
Map divisions are by county, barony, Poor Law Union, civil parish, dioceses, and probate districts.

Morrison, Olin D. The American South; Historical Atlas. Athens, Ohio: E. M. Morrison, 1965. 3 vol. in 4. (Ref G 1265 S324 M6 1965).
Hand-drawn maps of the region. Volumes 1-2 are general for the several states. The final volumes are detailed maps for each state. Genealogical applications.

Morse, Jedidiah. The American Gazetteer, Exhibiting a Full Account of the Civil Divisions, Rivers, Harbors, Indian Tribes, etc. of the American Continent... 3rd ed. Boston: Published by Thomas & Andrews, 1810. (E 14 M85 1810).
Valuable for its historical (1810) time period.

Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. Detroit: Omnigrahics, 1992. (Ref CD-ROM)
This CD has ca. 1,500,000 names, facts, and locations of places, locales, historic places, geographic features, etc. Useful to the genealogist because of its comprehensiveness.

Paullin, Charles O. Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington and the American Geographical Society of New York, 1932. (Ref G 3701 S1 P3).
The first scholarly atlas of American history. Useful in genealogical research for its coverage of land grants and boundaries.

Powell, William S. The North Carolina Gazetteer. Chapel Hill, N. C.: University of North Carolina, [1968]. (Ref F 252 P6).
Comprehensive. Historical and contemporary entries.

Sames, James W., III. Index of Kentucky & Virginia Maps, 1562 to 1900. Frankfort, Ky.: Kentucky Historical Society, 1976. (Ref GA 455 S25).
Over 5,000 maps are listed from major Virginia and Kentucky repositories in addition to repositories like the Library of Congress and the Filson Club. Map information includes where located, geographic coverage, map date, map name, and a bibliography of pertinent information about the map.

Shepherd, William R. Historical Atlas. 8th ed. Pikesville, Md.: Colonial Offset, 1959, 1956. (Ref G 1030 S4 1956).
A standard world atlas having an European emphasis. Useful in genealogical research for its showing of countries in varying time periods.

Showalter, Noah D. Atlas of Rockingham County, Virginia. Harrisonburg, Va.: Noah D. Showalter, 1939. (Ref and Sp Coll G 1293 R7 S45).
Illustrated with articles. Detailed maps.

Smith, Frank. A Genealogical Gazetteer of England; an Alphabetical Dictionary of Places, with their Location, Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, Population, and the Date of the Earliest Entry in the Registers of Every Ancient Parish in England. Baltimore: Genealogical, 1968. (DA 640 S6).
Comprehensive. Scholarly.

Swem, Earl G. Maps Relating to Virginia in the Virginia State Library and Other Departments of the Commonwealth: With the 17th and 18th Century Atlas-Maps in the Library of Congress. Richmond: Virginia State Library and Archives, 1989 reprint of the 1914 ed. (Ref G 3880 S83 1989).
Over 2,000 maps are listed from 1590 to 1914. Map information includes title, map author, scale and size, and agency holding the map (when appliable). Indexed.

The Times History of the World. 5th ed. London: Times Books, 1999. (Ref G 1030 T54 1999).
Excellent atlas covering all time periods. Useful to the genealogist for its coverage of the non-European world.

United States. National Archives and Records Service. Guide to Cartographic Records in the National Archives. Washington, D.C.: The Archives, 1971. (Ref Z 6028 U575 1971).
Detailed guide to National Archives cartographic records.

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Medical History

Carmichael, Terrence. How to DNA Test Our Family Relationships? Mountain View, Calif.: AceN Press, 2000. (RA 1138 C37 2000).
Discusses DNA testing that has interest for the genealogist.

Jerger, Jeanette L. A Medical Miscellany for Genealogists. Bowie, Md.: Heritage Books, 1995. (R 123 J47 1995).
Alphabetical arranged with short definitions of historical medical terms. A bibliography is included.

Krause, Carol. How Healthy Is Your Family Tree? A Complete Guide to Tracing Your Family's Medical and Behavioral Tree. New York: Fireside Book, 1995. (RB 155 K69 1995).
An excellent introduction to the process of understanding the medical records of your family. The discussion includes genogram surveys and a brief "resource" section.

Nelson-Anderson, Danette L. Genetic Connections: A Guide to Documenting Your Individual and Family Health History. Washington, Mo.: Sonters Publishing, 1995. (RB 155 N45 1995).
Following an introductory chapter on genetic inheritance there are chapters on the several areas of the body. A final unit has sections on topics as creating a health pedigree, linear pedigree worksheet, how to learn about deceased family members, a glossary of medical terms, a bibliography, etc.

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Obituary Sources

Obituaries are primary source materials for the genealogist. They can be located in a variety of sources. The Jarboe entry is a masterful guide to obituary sources. The section entitled Newspapers (Bibliographic) (below) is necessary to guide one through the bibliographic maze to determine what newspapers are available for a geographic area in a given time period. Some libraries and many historical and genealogical societies have clipping or other obituary files for a specific locality.

[The Freeman File] an Index to Articles from the Richmond Times-Dispatch and the Richmond News Leader. Richmond: SEC Computer Co., [1989]. (Ref Microfiche).
An index to the Richmond newspapers by Douglass Southall Freeman. Coverage is from approximately the mid-1920's to October 1985. Individuals are indexed.

Jarboe, Betty. Obituaries: a Guide to Sources. 2nd ed. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1989. (Ref CT 214 J37 1989).
Over 3,500 entries of books, journal articles, cemetery records, tombstone inscriptions, etc. Arranged by state and foreign country.

Nangle, Benjamin C. The Gentleman's Magazine Biographical and Obituary Notices, 1781-1819: an Index. New York: Garland, 1980. (AP 4 G312 N36 1980).
British journal listings.

New York Times Obituary Index. New York: New York Times, 1970-1980. 2 vol. (Ref CT 213 N47).
Coverage is 1858-1978.

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Directories

Directories can offer primary source material. The most useful, generally, are city directories and business directories. Academic libraries generally do not have extensive holdings of this type of material outside their immediate area. The Filby entry is valuable for its listing of collections with strong genealogy holdings. It is especially useful for its recording information allowing the genealogist to know how each repository handles interlibrary loan requests.

American Genealogical Lending Library. AGLL Catalog. 4th ed. Bountiful, Utah: The Library, [1988?]. (Ref CS 43 A5 1988).
Volume 2 only is held. This lists available military records and ship passenger lists on microfilm. This material originated with the National Archives.

Associations Unlimited. (Electronic Text).
Subject approach to locating nationally based genealogical associations.

Bentley, Elizabeth P. County Courthouse Book. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1995. (Ref KF 8700 A19 B46 1995).
Arranged by state, Bentley lists the various courthouses having vital records of research interest to the genealogist. Information includes addresses, telephone numbers, when organized, types of records available.

Bentley, Elizabeth P. Directory of Family Associations. 4th ed. [Baltimore]: Genealogical Publishing, 2001. (Ref CS 42 B45 2001).
American family surnames are arranged alphabetically listing genealogical/family associations. Information includes contacting information. Any publications, e.g. newsletters are noted.

Bentley, Elizabeth P. The Genealogist's Address Book. 4rd ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1998. (CS 44 B46 1998).
A directory with sections including national, state, ethnic, and religious contacts. A final section has miscellaneous coverage, e.g. heredity societies, newspaper columns, lending libraries, etc.

Burek, Deborah M., ed. Cemeteries of the U.S.: a Guide to Contact Information for U.S. Cemeteries and Their Records. Detroit: Gale Research, 1994. (GT 3203 C45 1994).
Over 22,000 cemeteries are listed. Information includes contacts, location, where any cemetery records are housed, etc. Although a massive compilation this is only a brief beginning to cemetery research.

Crouch, Milton, comp. Directory of State and Local History Periodicals. Chicago: American Library Association, 1977. (E 180 C76).
Useful in genealogical research for locating small/regional periodicals and their publishing societies.

Directory of Archives and Manuscript Repositories in the United States. 2nd ed. Phoenix: Oryx, 1988. (Ref CD 3020 U54 1988).
This source can identify institutions having strong collections that include genealogical information.

Directory of Historical Societies and Agencies in the United States and Canada. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1956- . irregular. (Ref E 172 A538).
Important for its listing of small, local societies and their programs. Information includes any publications and when the society is open for research purposes.

Filby, P. William, comp. Directory of American Libraries With Genealogy or Local History Collections. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1988. (Ref CS 47 F56 1988).
Arrangement is by state and Canadian province. Notes holding strengths, interlibrary loan possibilities, who can use the library, and contact information.

Harrisonburg, Virginia, City Directory. Richmond: R.L. Polk, 1984- . annual. (Ref F 234 H3 H3).
Published in earlier years under varying titles. Example of a city directory. City directories are useful for business information and confirmation of individuals living in a particular place at a given time.

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Indexes/Abstracts

Carrier Library contains several indexes that include information on genealogy and individual families. In addition to citations listed here Writings on American History (Bibliography section) and the Swem bibliography (Virginiana section) have extensive tabulations of journal articles on family history.

America: History and Life. 1954- . Database.

Combined Retrospective Index to Journals in History, 1938-1974.
(Volume 6 is "Biography and Genealogy").

Historical Abstracts. 1955- . Database.

Index to the Virginia Genealogist. 1957-1976. (Ref F 221 V79 1981).

The New York Times Index. 1851-2005.
This newspaper is available on microfilm to 2006. It is available as an electronic text from 1851 to circa three years ago.

PERiodical Source Index (PERSI). 1847-1985. (CS 1 P47 1988).

Poole's Index to Periodical Literature. 1802-1906.

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Journals (Bibliographic)

The two major sources for bibliographic control of all journals published in the world are listed here. Additional sources of research value include two in the Directory section (above). They are the directory by Crouch and the Directory of Historical Societies and Agencies in the United States and Canada. The last of these titles includes any publications as part of each entry.

Grundset, Eric G. Guide to the Contents of Virginia Genealogical Periodicals Through 1999. vol. 1. (F 225 G83 2001 v.1).
Fifteen journals having Virginia genealogical connections have the contents published. Name and subject indexes enhance this bibliography. The introduction is useful in determining additional indexing sources for Virginia periodical articles.

New Serial Titles. Washington, D. C.: Library of Congress, 1951- . in process. (Storage 2 Z 6945 U5 S42).
Lists journals published anywhere in the world that are available in American libraries. Comprehensive.

Union List of Serials in Libraries of the United States and Canada. 3rd ed. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1965. 5 vol. (Ref Z 6945 U45 1965).
Attempts to list journals published anywhere in the world that are in American and Canadian libraries. Useful to the genealogist for its holdings records.

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Journals

The journals noted here are mostly Virginia in origin or from nearby states. Many historical and genealogical societies will publish newsletters or journals that contain localized genealogical information.

Carolina Comments. 1970- .

Harrisonburg-Rockingham Historical Society. Newsletter. 1982- .

History News. 1980- .

North Carolina Historical Review. 1924- .

Northern Neck of Virginia Historical Magazine. 1952-1966.

Notes on Virginia. 1977-2007 .

Pennsylvania Folklife. 1972-1997 .

Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. 1967- .

Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives. 1969- . (Beginning with the Winter 1980 issue there is a column entitled "Sources at the National Archives for Genealogical and Local History Research").

Rockingham Recorder. 1945- .

Tyler's Quarterly. 1952.

Tyler's Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine. 1919-1952.

Virginia Cavalcade. 1951-2002 .

Virginia Genealogist. 1957-1976.

Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 1893-1905, 1906- .

William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine. 1892-1919, 1921-1943.

William and Mary Quarterly. 1944-2006. Also available 1892-2006 on the JSTOR Database.

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Newspapers (Bibliographic)

Carrier Library has the major sources that permit access to the newspapers of the world. Brigham and Gregory attempt to list all American newspapers published up to 1936. The Library of Congress, with its two sources listed here, endeavors to list newspapers, worldwide, that have been microfilmed and are available in the United States. Cappon's Virginia Newspapers 1821-1935... (Virginiana section) is an exhaustive listing of newspapers within this state for the time period covered. With the sources listed here genealogists should be able to obtain much of their needs through purchase or interlibrary loan. Carrier Library has a separate handout entitled Historical Newspapers which lists this type of material within the Library.

Brigham, Clarence S. History and Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1975 reprint of the 1947 ed. 2 vol. (Ref PN 4861 B86 1976)
The most comprehensive listing of American newspapers for the period covered. Arranged by state and city.

Gibson, Jeremy. Local Newspapers, 1750-1920, England and Wales, Channel Islands, Isle of Man: a Select Location List. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1989. (PN 5117 G52 1989).
Designed for the genealogist this guide is arranged by city or town. It lists the newspapers, with publication dates, for the time period covered.

Gregory, Winifred. American Newspapers, 1821-1936: a Union List of Files Available in the United States and Canada. New York: Kraus Reprint, 1967. (Ref PN 4855 A53 1967)
Arranged by state and city. Gregory contains the holdings records of almost 5,700 depositories. Comprehensive.

Historical Newspapers. (http://www.lib.jmu.edu/history/histpap.aspx).
A handout developed by Gordon W. Miller listing historical newspapers in Carrier Library. This handout is highlighted by a series of Colonial and Early National Period newspapers from the American Antiquarian Society that are produced on microprint.

Milner, Anita C. Newspaper Genealogical Column Directory. 4th ed. [Bowie, Md.]: Heritage Books, 1989. (CS 44 M49 1989).
Milner's work attempts to list American newspapers that have (or had) genealogy columns. Information includes contacting address, research area covered, frequency of column, when first published, requirements and charge for a query, availability of back issues, etc.

Newspapers in Microform: Foreign Countries, 1948-1983. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1984. (Ref PN 4731 U515 1984)
Lists, by country and city, newspapers for which microform holdings are available in the United States. Of vital interest to the genealogist for the current availablity of foreign newspapers. Updated irregularly.

Newspapers in Microform: United States, 1948-1983. Washington, D. C.: Library of Congress, 1984. 2 vol. (Ref PN 4855 U469 1984)
Lists, by state and city, newspapers for which microform holdings are available in the United States. This has vital interest to the genealogist for the current availability of American newspapers. Updated irregularly.

United States Newspaper Program
This site is the result of a cooperative area to locate, catalog and preserve newspapers throughout the United States. Arranged by state some states have completed their work. Most states have a link to information that includes the available newspapers. Several major newspaper repositories are at the site. These include the American Antiquarian Society, Center for Research Libraries, Library of Congress, and the New York Public Library.

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Videotapes/Media

The Genealogist's Video Research Guide. Spanish Fork, Utah: Video Knowledge, 1994-1995. (Media Resources Videotape no. 4569-4575).
In seven videotapes various aspects of genealogical researching are presented. Researchers at all levels can find these useful but the emphasis is on the beginning genealogical researcher. Printed guides are available for each videotape.

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Documentation, Evidence, Publishing, Writing

Balhuizen, Anne R. Searching on Location: Planning a Research Trip. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1992. (CS 9 B35 1992).
The author discusses how to plan to any genealogical trips. Chapters include topics as courthouses, churches, cemeteries, newspapers, etc. A checklist of what to do and a bibliography complete the work.

Barnes, Donald R. Write It Right: A Manual for Writing Family Histories and Genealogies. 2nd ed. Ocala, Fla.: Lyon Press, 1988. (CS 16 B3 1988).
An excellent source to use in the development of a family history. Comprehensive coverage although not much is offered on the use of computers.

Boyer, Carl, 3rd. How to Publish and Market Your Family History. 4th ed. Santa Clarita, Calif.: Carl Boyer 3rd, 1993. (Z 286 G46 B69 1993).
This guide looks at all areas including how to do genealogical research, writing the draft, use of a computer, and business aspects. Appendices consider style types, typefaces, genealogical book stores, word processing, etc.

Chamberlin, David C. The Conceptual Approach to Genealogy. Bountiful, Utah: Heritage Quest, 1998. (CS 16 C43 1998).
This book discusses the process of researching and writing the genealogy. It contains a discussion of using the computer, numbering the genealogy, and a number of appendices with examples and sources.

Christian, Peter. Web Publishing for Genealogy. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 2000. (CS 21 C44 2000).
This brief guide discusses, with examples, topics as web publishing software, genealogical tools, designing the web site, creating pages, going public, etc.

Curran, Joan F. Numbering Your Genealogy: Sound and Simple Systems. Arlington, Va.:National Genealogical Society, 1992. (CS 42 N43 no. 59).
This brief manual looks at several major numbering systems, describes them, and discusses their important features.

Dollarhide, William. Managing a Genealogical Project: A Complete Manual for the Management and Organization of Genealogical Materials. [rev. and] updated. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1999. (CS 16 D64 1999).
Discussion on how to handle your genealogical records. Sample forms are given. One chapter has information on using a computer in genealogical research.

Gouldrup, Lawrence P. Writing the Family Narrative. [n .p.]: Ancestry, 1987. (CS 14 G68 1987).
The author provides a step-by-step approach to how to write a family history. One chapter discuss the question of what family history involves.

Hatcher, Patricia L. Indexing Family Histories: Simple Steps for a Quality Product. Arlington, Va.: National Genealogical Society, 1994. (CS 14 H32 1994).
Detailed review of how to index and what (and what not) to include in the index. Use of a computer is discussed.

Helmbold, F. Wilbur. Tracing Your Ancestry: a Step-by-Step Guide to Researching Your Family History. Birmingham, Ala.: Oxmoor House, 1976. (CS 47 H44).
Comprehensive study useful to the beginning genealogist. Chapters discuss specific types of records. Brief mention on how to publish your work and scholarship with genealogical research is included. Bibliography.

Lackey, Richard S. Cite Your Sources: a Manual for Documenting Family Histories and Genealogical Records. Jackson, Miss.: University Press of Mississippi, 1980. (CS 16 L3 1980).
A standard style manual for the genealogist. Arranged by type of source, with examples. This has been updated by the Mills entry (below).

Mills, Elizabeth S. Evidence! Citation & Analysis for the Family Historian. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997. (Ref CS 16 M544 1997).
The standard manual of style for family history research. Following a discussion of the fundamentals of citation and writing style Mills has a comprehensive presentation of "Citation Format." Appendices include samples of famiy group sheets and ancestor charts.

Mills, Elizabeth S. Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts  to Cyberspace. Baltimore: Gealogical Publishing Company, 2007. (D 5 M55 2007)
In almost 900 pages the author discusses, with specific detail and examples, sources used in historical and genealogical research. Chapter examples include cemetery records, church records, national government records, etc. Citation examples are given for a bibliographical entry, a first reference note, and subsequent notes.

Rubincam, Milton. Evidence: an Exemplary Study: a Craig Family Case History. Washington, D.C.: National Genealogical Society, 1981. (CS 42 N43 no. 49).
A scholarly study of evidence by a major genealogist.

Rubincam, Milton. Pitfalls in Genealogical Research. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1987. (CS 14 R83 1987).
A leading genealogical scholar discusses problem areas including surnames, dating problems, fraudulent pedigrees, etc.

Sagraves, Barbara. A Preservation Guide: Saving the Past and the Present for the Future. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1995. (Z 701 S24 1995).
Written for the genealogica this is an important book for information on handling and storing materials. Sections include books, paper, photographs, motion picture films and videotape.

Shull, Wilma S. Photographing Your Heritage. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1988. (TR 147 S48 1988).
A comprehensive look at all aspects of photography for the genealogist. The emphasis is on the camera and taking pictures. There is a (very) brief comment on preservation of negatives and photographs.

Stevenson, Noel C. Genealogical Evidence: a Guide to the Standard of Proof Relating to Pedigrees, Ancestry, Heirship and Family History. rev. ed. [Laguna Hills, Calif.: Aegean Park, 1989. (CS 14 S73 1989).
Scholarly discussion from a legal viewpoint of evidence as it applies to genealogical research. Stevenson writes on the various types of records and how they apply as evidence.

Sturm, Duane. Video Family History. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1989. (PN 1992.94 S78 1989).
Sturm discusses the process and the how of videotaping a family for genealogy purposes. Technical advice is featured.

Whitaker, Beverly D. Beyond Pedigrees: Organizing and Enhancing Your Work. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry, 1993. (CS 14 W47 1993).
An excellent overview of the process of keeping track of the organization of your genealogical work. Illustrated by a number of charts on handling research, pedigrees, chronology, etc. Computer applications are included.

Wilson, Richard S.Publishing Your Family History on the Internet. La Habra, Calif.: Compuology, 1999. (CS 21 W44 1999).
This heavily illustrated guide to web publishing includes chapters as GEDCOM, why publish on the web, transferring pages onto the Internet, etc. Appendices include topics as frames, java scripts, compression programs, etc.

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Computer, and Internet Sources in Genealogy

Carrier Library has several sources on genealogy and computer applications. In addition a number of the titles in the Guides section (above) will include information on computing applications. Examples include:

Clifford, Karen.The Complete Beginner's Guide to Genealogy, the Internet, and Your Genealogy Computer Program. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 2001. (CS 14 C56 2001).
A current guide to genealogy research with an emphasis upon using computers and the Internet.

Crowe, Elizabeth P. Genealogy Online. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill/Osborne, 2003. (Ref CS 21 C67 2003).
This source looks at using the Internet for genealogical research. Chapters include topics on Ancestry.com, Everton's, the FHC's of the Mormon Church, etc. An excellent guide in a rapidly changing field.

Kovacs, Diane K. Genealogical Research on the Web. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, 2002. (Ref CS 14 K68 2002)
This guide offers an introductory look at the basic aspects of using the Internet for genealogy research. In the various chapters "Activities" are used to present steps to research. Appendices include a ready-reference E-Library, readings on Internet research and genealogy, and a glossary of terms.

The Internet

1. WorldCat
WorldCat represents the holdings of most library catalogs in the United States and many in European countries. It is an excellent source because of its current indexing of over 62 million titles. Genealogical sources are well represented.This is useful for finding sources to be obtained via intelibrary loan. Many small historical and genealogical libraries do not have their holdings in WorldCat. It had been available only in major libraries because of its expense. it is now available to the public @ <http://www.worldcat.org/>.

2. Genealogy Web Page
The following URL can be used for the author's Internet web page <http://www.lib.jmu.edu/genealogy/default.aspx>.