Skip to content

James Madison University

Hours, Contacts & Maps

Subject Guides

History Portal

Course Guides

Other Guides



Ancient & Medieval

Early Modern

18th & 19th Century

20th Century


North America

Latin America


Britain and Ireland

Africa, Asia, Middle East



History of Science

Local History


About the Libraries

Interlibrary Loan

Library Delivery

For Faculty


African American History

Compiled by:Gordon W. Miller
Liaison Librarian for History, Philosophy and Religion, Political Science
November 2002

Table of Contents

Subject Headings - Leonardo

The following subject headings are examples of ones useful in researching African-American history. For additional examples use the Library of Congress Subject Headings volumes located near the online terminals. Leonardo has a keyword search feature. For assistance in using this check with a reference librarian.

Afro-Americans - Civil rights
Afro-Americans - History
Civil rights
Slavery - United States

Individuals (examples)
Carver, George Washington
King, Martin Luther
Tubman, Harriet


Guides and bibliographies are useful as overviews to African-American history and as sources listing research materials. This section contains a number of sources that list materials not available in Carrier Library. The title by Davis is an excellent bibliography covering the full range of African-American history. The Hampton Institute catalog represents the library holdings of a major collection of African-American sources. The National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections and Debra Newman's guide represent manuscript materials that are available. Monroe Work's bibliography, although dated, is excellent for the time period it covers. Bibliographies can be located in many books and Journal Articles. Some bibliographies are listed in specific subject sections below.

Bibliographic Index. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1937-. Semi-annual, annual, and multi-year cumulations.
(Index/Abstract Table 5).
Useful for its continual updating of bibliographic sources. Books and Journal Articles are listed.

Brignano, Russell C. Black Americans in Autobiography: an Annotated Bibliography of Autobiography and Auto-biographical Books Written Since the Civil War. rev.and exp. ed. Durham, N.C.: Duke University, 1984.
(Ref E 185.96 B67 1984).
Over 700 listings of autobiographies. Various indexes.

Burg, Barbara A. Guide to African American and African Primary Sources at Harvard University. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press, 2000.
(Ref DT 3 B87 2000).
This guide lists 845 collections of African and African American manuscript collections at Harvard University. Entries generally contain a title and dates of coverage, a description of the collection, historical note, summary of the holdings, subject headings, and location.

Davis, Nathaniel. Afro-American Reference: an Annotated Bibliography of Selected Resources. Westport, Conn. Greenwood, 1985.
(Ref E 185 D29 1985).
Arranged by type of reference source. Wide range of subjects. Excellent annotations.

Du Bois, W. E. B. A Select Bibliography of the Negro American..... Atlanta: Atlanta University, 1905.
(Ref E 185.5 D826 1905).
Early bibliography on African-Americans. Still useful for its citations of the time period.

Gubert, Betty K., comp. Early Black Bibliographies, 1863-1918. New York: Garland, 1982.
(Ref E 185 E19 1982).
A reprint of nineteen old, and rare, bibliographies on African-Americans. Examples include three bibliographies by W. E. B. Du Bois, six from the Library of Congress, and one by Arthur A. Schomberg.

Ham, Debra N. The African-American Mosaic: A Library of Congress Resource Guide for the Study of Black History and Culture. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1993.
(E 184.6 L52 1994).
A bibliographical essay covering the full spectrum of American history. Major Library of Congress holdings are featured.

Hampton Institute. Collis P. Huntington Memorial Library. Dictionary Catalog of the George Foster Peabody Collection of Negro Literature and History. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, [1972]. 2 vol.
(Ref E 185 H32 1972).
A book catalog of the holdings on African-Americans at Hampton Institute. The entries are arranged by author, title, and subject. Entries include books, articles, audio-visual materials, pamphlets, etc. An outstanding example of the holdings of a major collection. Useful for locating more advanced materials.

Higginbortham, Evelyn B., ed. The Harvard Guide to African-American History. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001.
(Ref E 185 H326 2001).
This guide and bibliography is a comprehensive, and massive, collection of resources on African Americans. The bibliography is arranged by topics. Books, essays in books, Journal Articles, etc. are listed here. Twelve introductory essay cover over two-hundred pages. These essays include topics as bibliography, Internet resources, Primary Sources on microform, etc. This is a standard work and will be useful in all areas of research on African Americans.

Hill, Ruth E. Guide to the Transcripts of the Black Women and Oral History Project . Westport, Conn.: Meckler, 1991.
(Ref E 185.86 G75 1991).
This guide is to the oral history transcripts of seventy-two Black women interviewed from 1976-1981 through the Schlesinger Library at Radcliffe College. Each transcript is listed giving background information on the interviewer/interviewee. Libraries having copies of the transcripts are noted.

Hodges, F. Holly, comp. Guide to African-American Manuscripts in the Collection of the Virginia Historical Society. 2nd ed. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 2002.
(Ref E 185.93 V8 V8 2002).
This guide has 829 collections described. Each entry notes the size, dates of coverage, and a description of the collection. An appendix lists family records of African Americans in the Society's collections.

Hogg, Peter C. The African Slave Trade and its Suppression,a Classified and Annotated Bibliography of Books, Pamphlets and Periodical Articles. London: Frank Cass, [1973].
(Ref HT 1321 H63 1973).
Comprehensive bibliography on all aspects of the slave trade. Much of the material includes research on African-Americans.

The Howard University Bibliography of African and Afro-American Religious Studies: With Locations in American Libraries. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1977.
(Ref BR 563 N4 W49 1977).
Over 13,000 primary and secondary sources from ca. 230 United States repositories are listed. Arrangement is by geographic area and time period. Specific denominations are noted in each section. Appendices include major manuscript collections and a bibliography of autobiographical or biographical sources on religious figures.

The Kaiser Index to Black Resources, 1948-1986: From the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture of the New York Public Library. Brooklyn: Carlson, 1992. 5 vol. (Ref E 185 K24 1992).
A massive index to over 174,000 citations in 15,000 subject headings. Ca. 150 journals and newspapers are indexed.

Kimbrough, Marvin. Black Magazines; an Exploratory Study. [Austin, Tex.: School of Communication, University of Texas, 1973].
(PN 4882.4 K5 1973).
In addition to a listing of African-American magazines there is a bibliography of books and articles on the periodicals.

La Brie, Henry G. The Black Newspaper in America, a Guide. [Kennebunkport, Me.: Mercer House], 1973.
(PN 4882.5 L3 1973).
A directory of African-American newspapers with information available to contact them.

Miller, Elizabeth W. The Negro in America; a Bibliography. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, 1966.
(Ref E 185 M544 1966).
A Scholarly presentation. The majority of the citations are Journal Articles.

"[National Archives Guide]." Prologue Summer 1997. vol. 29, no. 2, p. [83]-181.
The complete issue of this periodical published by the National Archives is on African American research in the Archives. A series of articles looks at various Record Groups.

The National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections. Washington, D. C.: Library of Congress, 1959/61-1993 .
(Biblio Z 6620 U5 N3).
This guide lists manuscript collections, nationwide, and where they are located. The most comprehensive bibliography of manuscripts available.

Newman, Debra, comp. Black History: a Guide to Civilian Records in the National Archives . Washington, D. C.: National Archives Trust Fund Board, 1984.
(Ref E 185 N576 1984).
Because of its important manuscript holdings this guide is useful in determining available collections at the National Archives.

Newman, Richard, comp. Black Access: a Bibliography of Afro-American Bibliographies . Westport, Conn: Greenwood, 1984.
(Ref E 185 N578 1984).
A bibliography of bibliographies. Books and Journal Articles are listed. Alphabetical arrangement with subject index.

Plunkett, Michael, comp. Afro-American Sources in Virginia: a Guide to Manuscripts . Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1990.
(Ref E 185.93 V8 P496 1990).
Twenty-three repositories are included in this listing of manuscript holdings on African American collections. Entries include the size and date of the collection and a note on the specific available information.

Plunkett, Michael, comp. A Guide to the Collections Relating to Afro-American History, Literature, & Culture in the Manuscripts Department of the University of Virginia Library. Charlottesville, Va.: University of Virginia Library, 1984.
(Ref E 185 P57 1984).
Example of a guide to the holdings of an individual manuscript repository.

Porter, Dorothy B. The Negro in the United States; a Selected Bibliography. Washington, D. C.: Library of Congress, 1970.
(Ref E 185 P67 1970).
Following a section on key reference sources the bibliography is arranged by subject. The majority of the 1700 entries are monographs.

Potter, Vilma R. A Reference Guide to Afro-American Publications and Editors, 1827-1946 . Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University, 1993.
(Ref PN 4882.5 P67 1993).
An essay on Black American journalists introduces this work. An alphabetical list of the newspapers includes data as date founded, if/when expired, place of publication, and where any available issues are on file. Appendices include additional titles, a year-of-publication index, etc.

Ransom, Charles G. "Bibliographies of Microforms Relating to African-Americans." Microform Review Spring 1994. vol. 23, no. 2. p. 64-75.
A major bibliography arranged by topic. Useful for available sources when comprehensiveness is required.

Sims-Wood, Janet L., comp. The Progress of Afro-American Women: a Selected Bibliography and Resource Guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1980.
(Ref E 185.86 S55 1986).
Comprehensive. Topical arrangement.

Smith, Dwight L., ed. Afro-American History: a Bibliography. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-Clio, [1974-1981]. 2 vol.
(Ref E 185 S53 1974 v.2).
Volume two only is available. Over 4,000 journal article entries.

Smith, John D., comp. Black Slavery in the Americas: an Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980. 1982. 2 vol.
(Ref HT 1049 S63 1982).
Over 21,000 citations to books, articles, dissertations, etc. Comprehensive coverage of slavery in America.

Southern, Eileen, ed. African-American Traditions in Song, Sermon, Tale, and Dance, 1600's - 1920: an Annotated Bibliography of Literature,Collections, and Artworks. New York: Greenwood, 1990.
(Ref NX 512.2 A35 S68 1990).
A comprehensive bibliography covering the broad spectrum of the arts and literature in the African American experience. Journal Articles, books, art works, and music entries. Scholarly.

Strickland, Arvarh E., ed. The African American Experience: An Historiographical and Bibliographical Guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001.
(Ref E 184.65 A37 2001).
This is a scholarly bibliographical essay on a variety of topics. Topic examples include music, sports, religion, etc.

Thompson, Lawrence S., comp. The Southern Black: Slave and Free; a Bibliography of Anti- and Pro-Slavery Books and Pamphlets, and of Social and Economic Conditions in the Southern States from the Beginnings to 1950. Troy, N. Y.: Whitson, 1970.
(Z 1251 S7 T47).

United States. National Archives and Records Administration. Black Studies: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. [rev. ed.] Washington, D.C.: The Archives, 1996.
(Ref E 185 U63 1996).
Arranged by Record Group number this is a guide to the National Archives holdings on African Americans. This guide provides the access numbers to order microfilm.

United States. National Historical Publications Commission. A Guide to Archives and Manuscripts in the United States. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University, 1961.
(Ref CD 3022 A45).
Detailed listing of the holdings of the major archival and manuscript repositories in the United States.

United States. National Archives and Records Administration. Guide to the National Archives of the United States. Washington, D. C.: The Archives, 1987.
(Ref CD 3023 U53 1987).
The main guide to National Archives holdings. This source gives a "quick" overview of the National Archives record groups.

Westmoreland, Guy T. An Annotated Guide to Basic Reference Books on the Black American Experience. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, [1974].
(Ref E 185 W47 1974).

Work, Monroe N., comp. A Bibliography of the Negro in Africa and America. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1928.
(Ref E 185 W67 1928).
Classic, monumental work. Useful especially for its detailed subject arrangement. Journal Articles and books.


Dictionaries and encyclopedias provide brief facts and biographical information. This type of source can be useful early in the research process to aid in defining a topic. Some encyclopedias contain brief bibliographies.

The African American Almanac. 7th ed. Detroit: Gale Research, 1997.
(Ref E 185 A37 1997).
Formerly The Negro Almanac. This is a comprehensive, illustrated encyclopedia arranged in a subject approach. A bibliography completes the work.

Asante, Molefi K. The African-American Atlas: Black History and Culture - An Illustrated Reference. New York: Macmillan USA, 1998.
(Ref E 185 A79 1998)
Chronologically arranged in topical chapters this is more an encyclopedia than atlas. Heavily illustrated.

Asante, Molefi K. Historical and Cultural Atlas of African Americans. New York: Macmillan, 1991.
(Ref E 185 A8 1991).
An illustrated atlas with statistical information. The discussion, and maps, include the African experience. Appendices include a chronology of key dates and a bibliography.

Blockson, Charles L. Hippocrene Guide to the Underground Railroad. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1994.
(Ref E 450 B65 1994).
Arranged by state the brief entries for each station include why it was important, and location and contact information. Appendices includes songs of the Underground Railroad, tour organizations, African-American anti-slavery newspapers, a glossary, and a bibliography. Illustrated.

Cantor, George. Historic Landmarks of Black America. Detroit: Gale Research, 1991.
(Ref E 185.53 A1 C36 1991).
An illustrated guide arranged by state. Entries give location directions, summary of the landmark features, and when the site is open to the public. Appendices include a chronology of key events and a bibliography.

Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. New York: Macmillan Library Reference, 1996. 5 vol.
(Ref E 185 E54 1996).
A scholarly, illustrated, source of biographical and subject entries. About two-thirds of the 2,200 entries are biographical. Entries contain bibliographies. Appendices include a lengthy statistical section followed by a "Biographical Entries by Profession" list.

Encyclopedia of African-American Religions. New York: Garland, 1993.
(Ref BR 563 N4 E53 1993).
A massive compilation of essays and encyclopedia entries on individuals and church groups. Most entries include brief bibliographies. Appendices include a bibliography of African-American religion and a directory of African-American churches and organizations.

Estell, Kenneth, ed. Reference Library of Black America. Detroit: Gale Research, 1994. 5 vol.
(Ref E 185 R435 1994).
Comprehensive encyclopedia. Sections include a chronology, significant documents, civil rights, literature, military, etc. Each volume has its own bibliography and index.

Low, W. Augustus, ed. Encyclopedia of Black America. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.
(Ref E 185 E55).
A scholarly, illustrated encyclopedia. Good for biographical sketches. Some entries have bibliographies.

Miller, Randall M., and Smith, John D. Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery: Updated, with a New Introduction and Bibliography. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1997.
(Ref E 441 D53 1997).
Scholarly dictionary with signed articles and bibliographies with the entries. A "Chronology of Afro-American Slavery" is appended.

Mjagkij, Nina, ed. Organizing Black America: An Encyclopedia of African American Associations. New York: Garland Publishing, 2001.
(Ref E 185.5 O74 2001).
In 576 entries the compilers of this encyclopedia list current and historical Black American organizations. Brief bibliographies are provided for the entries.

Negro Year Book; Annual Encyclopedia of the Negro. Tuskegee, Ala. [etc.].
(E 185.5 N41).
Annual, comprehensive coverage. Carrier Library has the annuals for 1937-38, 1941-46, and 1952.

Ploski, Harry A., and Williams, James, ed. The Negro Almanac: a Reference Work on the Afro-American. 5th ed. New York: Wiley, 1989.
(Ref E 185 P55 1989).
Comprehensive coverage. Sections included topics as chronology, documents, statistics, slavery, and biographical sketches. A selected bibliography completes the work.

Smith, Jessie C., ed. Black Firsts: 2,000 years of Extraordinary Achievements. Detroit: Visible Ink, 1994.
(Ref E 185 B574 1994b).
With an emphasis on activity in the United States this topically arranged source gives brief commentary on achievements. Entries include bibliographies. Illustrated.

Williams, Michael W., ed. The African American Encyclopedia. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1993. 6 vol.
(Ref E 185 A253 1993).
Individuals are the major emphasis in this source. Topics, e.g. sports, and cultural events are noted. Appendices include major businesses, libraries, colleges, newspapers, and TV and radio stations. Brief bibliographies are included.

Primary Sources

Examples of published Primary Sources are listed in this section. Carrier Library has a number of major published documents on African-American history. Other sections, e.g. Slavery, contain examples of primary source materials.

[Adler, Mortimer J., ed.]. The Negro in American History.[Chicago]: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp.,[1969]. 3 vol.
(E 185 N4).
Documents from 1567 to 1968. Critical introductions to the documents are included. Published in reverse chronological order.

African American History in the Press, 1851-1899: From the Coming of the Civil War to the Rise of Jim Crow as Reported and Illustrated in Selected Newspapers of the Time. Detroit: Gale Research, 1996. 2 vol.
(Ref E 185.2 A25 1996).
In ca. 1,200 articles and editorials and over 470 cartoons and engravings this book presents African American history for the last half of the 19th century as seen in the eyes of thirteen major American newspapers. Arranged chronologically.

Aptheker, Herbert, comp. A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States . New York: Citadel Press, [1969].
(E 185 A6 1969).
Outstanding collection with coverage from the American Revolutionary period to the present.

Bergman, Peter M., comp. The Negro in the Congressional Record, 1789-1801. New York: Bergman, [1969].
(E 185 B467 1969).
Documents taken from the Annals of the Congress for the noted years.

Bergman, Peter M., comp. The Negro in the Continental Congress. New York: Bergman, [1969].
(E 185 B47).
Documents are taken from the Journals of the Continental Congress for the years 1774-1789.

Berlin, Ira, ed. The Destruction of Slavery. New York: Cambridge University, 1985.
(E 185.2 F88 ser.1, v.1).

Brotz, Howard, ed. Negro Social and Political Thought,1850-1920. New York: Basic Books, [1966].
(E 185 B876).

Ducas, George, ed. Great Documents in Black American History. New York: Praeger, [1970].
(E 184.6 D83 1970).
Twenty-two document, some lengthy, covering from 1754(John Woolman) to a 1966 essay on Malcolm X by LeRoi Jones.

Fishel, Leslie H. The Negro American; a Documentary History. Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman, [1967].
(E 185 F5).
Over 200 documents, with background commentary, are printed.

Frazier, Thomas R., comp. Afro-American History: Primary Sources. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, [1970].
(E 184.6 F7).
Includes a bibliography.

Foner, Philip S., ed. Frederick Douglass: Selected Speeches and Writings. Chicago; Lawrence Hill Books, 1999.
(E 449 D7345 1999).
Arranged chronologically with writings and speeches dated from 1841 to 1894. Commentary and analysis is given by the editors for the various writings and speeches.

Freedom: a Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867; Selected from the Holdings of the National Archives of the United States. New York: Cambridge University, 1982- .
(E 185.2 F88).
Published in several series Freedom... prints major documents of the National Archives. Documents include brief descriptions.

Grant, Joanne, comp. Black Protest; History, Documents,and Analyses, 1619 to the Present. [New York: Fawcett World Library, 1968].
(E 185 G75).

Katz, William L., comp. Eyewitness; the Negro in American History. New York: Pitman, [1967].
(E 185 K28).
Outstanding collection of source material covering the full sweep of American history. Commentary is included on the documents. Illustrated.

Meltzer, Milton. In Their Own Words; a History of the American Negro. New York: Crowell, [1964-1967]. 3 vol.
(E 185 M54).
Documents covering 1619 to 1966. A chronology of Black history is appended.

Nalty, Bernard C., ed. Blacks in the Military: Essential Documents. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1981.
(UB 418 A47 B55 1981).
The documents cover from 1639 through the Vietnam War era. Arrangement is chronological. The documents have brief introductions.

Osofsky, Gilbert. The Burden of Race; a Documentary History of Negro-White Relations in America. New York: Harper & Row, [1967].
(E 185 O8).
Documents have brief introductory comments. Bibliography.

Romero, Patricia W., comp. I Too am America; Documents from 1619 to the Present. New York: Publishers Co., [1968].
(E 185 R76).
Anthology of various types of documentation (letters, speeches, etc.).

Schomburg Clipping File. Alexandria, Va.: Chadwick Healey, 1989?- .
(Media Resources. Microfiche).
A massive collection of ca. 14,000 microfiche from the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. Coverage is in two sections covering 1924-1974 and 1975-1988. There are some clippings back to the late nineteenth century. Coverage is very broad. Print indexes are available in Media Resources. For more information on this collection see the SCHOMBURG handout.

Sterling, Dorothy, comp. Speak Out in Thunder Tones;Letters and Other Writings by Black Northerners,1787-1875. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday., [1973].
(E 184.6 S83 1973).

Straub, Deborah G., ed. Voices of Mlticultural America: Notable Speeches Delivered by African, Asian, Hispanic and Native Americans, 1790-1995. Detroit: Gale Research, 1996.
(Ref PS 663 M55 V64 1996).
Speeches of ca. seventy African Americans are printed. For each speaker a biographical sketch and introduction to the speech is provided.

Stuckey, Sterling. The Ideological Origins of Black Nationalism. Boston: Beacon, [1972].
(E 449 S933 1972).


Published Primary Sources of individuals are contained in this section.

Douglass, Frederick. The Frederick Douglass Papers. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University, 1979-. In progress.
(E 449 D733).

Garrison, William L. The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971- . In process.
(E 449 G245).

King, Martin Luther, Jr. The Words of Martin Luther King Jr. New York: Newmarket Press, 1983.
(E 185.97 K5 A25 1983).
Anthology of major writings and speeches.

Washington, Booker T. The Booker T. Washington Papers.Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois, [1972- .]. in process.
(E 185.97 W274).

General Histories

This section suggests several general histories. The Library has many additional sources that could be included here. Excellent bibliographies are features of these titles.

Aptheker, Herbert. Essays in the History of the American Negro. New York: International Publishers, [1964].
(E 185 A6 1964).
Essays are included on slave revolts, the abolitionist movement, and the American Revolution and Civil War. A chronology of slave revolts and a bibliography are appended.

Bennett, Lerone, Jr. Before the Mayflower: a History of Black America. 5th ed. New York: Penguin Books, 1984.
(E 185 B4 1987).
General history. Appendices include Black Firsts, Landmarks and Milestones, and a bibliography.

Cooper, Jerry. The Militia and the National Guard in America Since Colonial Times: A Research Guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1993.
(Ref UA 42 C67 1993).
This annotated bibliography contains a chapter on African American involvement in the militia and national guard.

Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.
(E 668 F66 1988).
Scholarly presentation. Excellent bibliography.

Foner, Philip S. History of Black Americans. Westport,Conn.: Greenwood, 1975- .
(E 185 F5915).
A scholarly study. Excellent bibliography.

Grimshaw, Allen D., comp. Racial Violence in the United States. Chicago: Aldine, [1969].
(E 185.61 G89).
Essays. Excellent bibliography.

Hine, Darlene C., ed. Black Women in American History: the Twentieth Century. Brooklyn: Carlson, 1990. 4 vol.
(E 185.86 B544 1990).
Essays and articles from many sources are reprinted. This scholarly work looks at the full spectrum of Black American women and their experiences.

Meier, August, comp. Black Protest Thought in the Twentieth Century. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill,[1971].
(E 185.61 M514 1971).
Meier's work features an excellent bibliographical essay.

Morris, Robert C. Reading,'Riting, and Reconstruction:the Education of Freedmen in the South, 1861-1870. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1981.
(LC 2801 M64).
Scholarly work with an excellent bibliography.

Civil Rights

Representative titles are noted here. Included is the legal encyclopedia American Jurisprudence . Indexes will also contain much information regarding civil rights.

American Jurisprudence. 2nd ed. Rochester, N. Y.: Lawyers Co-operative Publishing Co., 1962- .
(Law KF 154 A42).
Cited as AmJur 2d. A major legal encyclopedia that includes civil rights topics and cases. Another major legal encyclopedia is Corpus Juris Secundum (CJS) @ (Law KF 154 C65).

Avins, Alfred, comp. The Reconstruction Amendments' Debates: the Legislative History and Contemporary Debates in Congress on the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. Richmond: Virginia Commission on Constitutional Government, 1967.
(KF 4756 A29 A9).
The texts of Congressional debates from 1949 to 1875 are printed. Arrangement is by Congressional session. Good indexing.

Belknap, Michal R. Federal Law and Southern Order: Racial Violence and Constitutional Conflict in the Post-Brown South. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia, 1987.
(KF 4757 B346 1987).
Scholarly work with an outstanding bibliographical essay.

Blaustein, Albert P., comp. Civil Rights and the Black American: a Documentary History . [New York]: Simon and Schuster, [1968].
(E 185.61 B5).
Chronological arrangement with coverage from 1619 to 1968.

Eyes on the Prize: America's Civil Rights Years. Alexandria, Va.: PBS Video, 1986.
(Media Resources. Videotape no. 199-204).
Six video cassettes covering 1954-1966.

Lawson, Steven F. "Freedom Then, Freedom Now: the Historiography of the Civil Rights Movement." American Historical Review. 96 (April 1991): 456-471.
A scholarly discussion of the writing, to 1990, on the Civil Rights movement.

Lowery, Charles D., ed. Encyclopedia of African-American Civil Rights: from Emancipation to the Present. New York: Greenwood, 1992.
(Ref E 185.61 E54 1992).
Over 800 articles including individuals, organizations, topics, law decisions, etc. are covered in this work. Entries contain brief bibliographies. A chronology of important events is included.

McPherson, James M. The Abolitionist Legacy: from Reconstruction to the NAACP. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University, 1975.
(E 185.61 M18).

Meier, August, comp. Black Protest Thought in the Twentieth Century. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, [1971].
(E 185.61 M514 1971).

Murray, Paul T. The Civil Rights Movement: References and Resources. New York: G. K. Hall, 1993.
(Ref E 185.61 M97 1993).
Ca. 1400 Journal Articles and books are included in this topically arranged bibliography. Excellent annotations.

Sterling, Dorothy. Tear Down the Walls! a History of the American Civil Rights Movement . Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, [1968].
(E 185.6 S76).

Weinberg, Meyer, comp. Racism in the United States: a Comprehensive Classified Bibliography. New York: Greenwood, 1990.
(Ref E 184 A1 W34 1990).
Weinberg has arranged this bibliography into eighty-seven subject categories. The thousands of citations include books, articles, documents, dissertations, reports, etc. The standard racism bibliography.

Pictorial Works

Carrier Library has few pictorial histories of African-Americans. Many books, in addition to those listed here, will include illustrations.

Ebony Editors. Ebony Pictorial History of Black America. Chicago: Johnson Publishers, 1971-1973. 4 vol.
(Juvenile 973.096 E16).
Outstanding collection of illustrations and photographs. Volumes 1-3 present the historical picture. Volume four is a 1973 yearbook.

Freed, Leonard. Black in White America. New York: Grossman,[1969].
(E 185.86 F76).
Pictures, with commentary, from the 1960's.

Hughes, Langston. A Pictorial History of Black Americans. 4th rev. ed. New York: Crown, 1973.
(E 185 H83 1973).
Covers the total spectrum of the African-American experience in America.

Van DerZee, James. The World of James Van DerZee: a Visual Record of Black Americans . New York: Grove, [1969].
(TR 680 V28).
Representative photographs from Van DerZee's collection. He was centered in New York City. Twentieth century photographs.

Wood, Peter H. Winslow Homer's Images of Blacks: the Civil War and Reconstruction Years . Austin, Tex.: University of Texas, 1988.
(ND 237 H7 A4 1988A).
Published as a catalog from an art exhibition. Forty-one of Homer's works are displayed. A "Winslow Homer Chronology, 1850-79" is appended.

Biographical Sources

In addition to the sources listed here some of the encyclopedias (recorded above) will contain biographical sources. Newspaper indexes may also be useful in biographical research. The Spradling citation lists a large number of biographical sources from all time periods.

Bigelow, Barbara C., ed. Contemporary Black Biography: Profiles from the International Black Community. Detroit: Gale Research, 1992. 3 vol.
(Ref E 185.96 C66).
Living and deceased individuals, mostly from the United States, are included in this source. Entries include illustrations, major events, and a bibliography.

Biography and Genealogical Master Index.
Electronic Text
An index to several million individuals from all time periods. Black Americans are included. Over 500 biographical sources have been indexed for this service.

Biography Index. 1984- .
Electronic Text. Also available 1946- . as a print index.
Useful for its continual updating and for its occupational/professional listing of individuals.

Burkett, Randall K., ed. Black Biography, 1790-1950: A Cumulative Index. Alexandria, Va.: Chadwyck-Healey, 1991. 3 vol.
(Ref E 185.96 B528 1991).
An outstanding collection of ca. 31,000 biographies from 297 source books. The index is necessary to locate the citation to the documentation on 1,068 microfiche. Volumes 1 - 2 of the index are arranged alphabetically and list place of birth, birth date, gender (when female), occupation, religion, and location on the microfiche. Volume 3 is the index to the full set. It lists the 297 sources in addition to place of birth, occupation, religion and women.

Hine, Darlene C., ed. Black Women in United States History. Brooklyn, N. Y.: Carlson, 1990.
(E 185.86 B544 1990).
Essays, by topic, on various areas of human endeavor. Some essays are on individuals, e.g. Gwendolyn Brooks. Scholarly.

Litwack, Leon, and Meier, August. Black Leaders of the Nineteenth Century. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois, 1988.
(E 185.96 B535 1988).
Sixteen Black Americans have lengthy, and scholarly, biographies. An excellent bibliographical essay is appended.

Logan, Rayford W., and Winston, Michael R. Dictionary of American Negro Biography . New York: Norton, 1982.
(Ref E 185.96 D53 1982).
Essays on over 700 deceased African-Americans. All occupational areas.

Robinson, Wilhelmena S. Historical Negro Biographies. New York: Publishers Co., [1967].
(Ref DT 18 R57).
Brief sketches on over 500 African-Americans living from the fourteenth through the twentieth centuries.

Salem, Dorothy C. African American Women: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland, 1993.
(Ref E 185.96 A45 1993).
Ca. 300 women are included in this dictionary covering from the 18th century to the present. Each individual's sketch contains a bibliography of primary and secondary sources. An appendix lists the biographees by career.

Salley, Columbus. The Black 100: a Ranking of the Most Influential African-Americans Past and Present. New York: Citadel, 1993.
(E 185.96 S225 1993).
The author presents, with illustrated biographical sketches, his list of the most influential African-Americans.

Smith, Jessie C., ed. Notable Black American Women. Detroit: Gale Research, 1992.
(Ref E 185.96 N68 1992).
Ca. 500 women from all time eras are included in this biographical dictionary. Entries include bibliographies and a note on where any papers or other personal collections are located. A 1996 edition (Book II) is @ Ref E 185.96 N682 1996.

Spradling, Mary M., ed. In Black and White: a Guide to Magazine Articles, Newspaper Articles, and Books Concerning More Than 15,000 Black Individuals, and Groups.3rd ed. Detroit: Gale Research, 1980. 2 vol.
(Ref Z 1361 N39 S655 1980).
A major index because of the number of individuals listed and the wide range of sources consulted. An occupation index and a bibliography of books, magazines, pamphlets, newspapers, and calendars consulted is appended.

Toppin, Edgar A. A Biographical History of Blacks in America Since 1528. New York: McKay, [1971].
(E 185.96 T66).
In addition to fifteen essays on African-American history there is a section of biographical sketches of leading Black Americans.

Who's Who Among Black Americans. Northbrook, Ill.: Who's Who Among Black Americans . 1977- . irregular.
(Ref E 185.96 W52).
Living African-Americans are listed. At Ref E 185.96 W54 1950 is the book Who's Who in Colored America. This is an earlier series of "Who's Who" type books.


The citations in this section include major bibliographies (Miller and Olson), journals dealing with slavery and its liberation, several monographs, and examples of primary source materials. Carrier Library has a major primary source in The American Slave: a Composite Autobiography.

The African Observer: a Monthly Journal Containing Essays and Documents Illustrative of the General Character, and Moral and Political Effects of Negro Slavery. 1827-1828.
(Bound Periodicals).

The American Slave: a Composite Autobiography. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, [1972]. 19 vol.
(E 444 A45).
Transcriptions of slave narratives prepared by the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938. Over 20,000 pages with 3,500 interviews. This is the single most valuable research source on American slavery. Arranged by state. Supplement 1 of 12 volumes and Supplement 2 of 10 volumes are available at the same call number. Indexes to the material entitled Index to The American Slave (Ref E 444 A45 supp.3) and A Comprehensive Name Index for The American Slave (Ref E 444 A45 supp 4) are available.

Anti-Slavery Expansion. 1836-1845.
(Bound Periodicals).

The Anti-Slavery Record. 1835-1837.
(Bound Periodicals).

Anti-Slavery Tracts. 1855-1856, 1860-1861.
(Bound Periodicals).

Berlin, Ira, ed. Remembering Slavery: African Americans Talk About Their Personal Experiences of Slavery and Freedom. New York: New Press, 1998.
(E 443 R46 1998).
Oral history transcripts from the Federal Writers' Project are supplemented by two audiotapes of live recordings and readings.

Blassingame, John W., ed. Slave Testimony: Two centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews, and Autobiographies. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1977.
(E 444 S57).
Coverage is from 1736-1938. Primary source material.

Breeden, James O. Advice Among Masters: the Ideal in Slave Management in the Old South . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1980.
(E 443 A37).

Over 100 documents reprinted from Southern agricultural journals are available. The subject matter ranges widely. Notes, and a bibliography, are included.

Catterall, Helen H.T. Judicial Cases Concerning American Slavery and the Negro. New York: Octagon Books, 1968 reprint of the 1926 ed. 5 vol.
(KF 4545 S5 C3 1968).
Comprehensive coverage is offered in this title reprinting thousands of court records. Arranged chronologically by state. Good indexing.

Curtin, Philip D. The Atlantic Slave Trade; a Census. Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin, 1969.
(HT 975 C8).
Classic work that combines demographic and linguistic research along with historical studies. Tables, maps, notes, and a bibliography are included in this scholarly work.

Donnan, Eliabeth, ed. Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America. New York: Octagon Books, 1965 reprint of the 1930 ed. 4 vol.
(E 441 D69 1965).
Scholarly presentation with footnotes and illustrative matter. Arranged by colony or state.

Escott, Paul D. Slavery Remembered: a Record of Twentieth Century Slave Narratives . Chapel Hill, N. C.: University of North Carolina, 1979.
(E 443 E82).
Discussion of slave narratives and how they were obtained. Bibliography.

Finkelman, Paul, ed. Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 1998. 2 vol.
(Ref HT 861M24 1998).
A scholarly, illustrated encyclopedia. Entries cover all areas of the world and all time periods. The African American slave experience is throughout. Entries contain bibliographies.

Foster, Gaines M. "Guilt Over Slavery: a Historiographical Analysis." The Journal of Southern History. 56 (November 1990): [665]-694.
An excellent presentation of historical writing on Southerns and their views regarding slavery.

Govenar, Alan. African American Frontiers: Slave Narratives and Oral Histories. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2000.
(Ref E 444 G68 2000).
This book has three section of a) slave narratives, b) WPA slave narratives, and c) Oral Histories. Govenar introduces each narratives with comments on the times and the person.

Hollander, Barnett. Slavery in America. New York: Barnes and Noble, [1964].
(KF 4545 S5 H59 1964).
General history. Bibliography.

The Liberator.
(E 173 O44 no. 78).
Volume 1, number 1 issue.

Liberator. Document of Upheaval; Selections from William Lloyd Garrison's the Liberator, 1831-1865. New York: Hill and Wang, [1966].
(E 449 L68).

Miller, Joseph C. Slavery: a Worldwide Bibliography, 1900-1982. White Plains, N. Y.: Kraus International, 1985.
(Z 7164 S6 M543 1985).
Arranged geographically, this bibliography attempts comprehensiveness for the time period covered. Western European languages. Books, Journal Articles, and dissertations.

Miller, Joseph C. Slavery and Slaving in World History: A Bibliography, 1900-1991 . Millwood, N.Y.: Kraus International, 1993.
(Ref HT 861 M54 1993).
Over 10,300 scholarly secondary source citations are listed in this comprehensive bibliography. Arranged by geographic area with separate sections on ancient and medieval sources. A "slave trade" section complet the work.

Olson, James S. Slave Life in America: a Historiography and Selected Bibliography . Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1983.
(E 443 O44 1983).
Following introductory chapters of slave historiography is a comprehensive bibliography.

Rodriguez, Junius P. Chronology of World Slavery. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-Clio, 1999.
(Ref HT 861 R63 1999).
This scholarly work cover the full sweep of human history and slavery from the ancient world through 1998. Brief comments, by year, are featured. Eighty "documents" from the Code of Hammurabi on slavery to a Brazilian document of 1995 are printed. Throughout the text "sidebars" offer detailed information on a variety of topics. A major bibliography completes the work.

Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1997. 2 vol.
(Ref HT 861 H57 1997).
This scholarly work discusses slavery worldwide and at all historic times. There is a lot of information on the slavery in the United States. A lot of biographical information is presented. Bibliographies with entries and as a single bibliography appended.

Rose, Willie L. A Documentary History of Slavery in North America. New York: Oxford University, 1976.
(E 441 D64).
Comprehensive topical coverage is provided in 105 documents. An excellent bibliographical essay is appended.

Schneider, Dorothy. Slavery in America : from Colonial Times to the Civil War. New York: Facts on File, 2000.
(Ref E 441 S36 2000).
This illustrated history offers a comprehensive look at slavery in America. Chapters are on topics as slave life, slave work, runaways, etc. Forty-five documents from 1661 to 1870 are in an appendix. A glossary, biographical sketches, and a bibliography complete the work.

Smith, John D. An Old Creed for the New South: Proslavery Ideology and Historiography . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1985.
(E 441 S655 1985).
The historiography includes a bibliography.

Windley, Lathan A. Runaway Slave Advertisements: a Documentary History from the 1730's to 1790. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1983. 4 vol.
(E 446 W73 1983).
Source material on runaway slaves. Reprints from the original slave runaway advertisements. Carrier Library has volume one only, which contains Virginia and North Carolina advertisements.


Ciment, James. Atlas of African-American History. New York: Facts on File, 2001.
(Ref E 185 C55 2001).
This atlas is mainly text with maps and charts used to enhance the text. A bibliography is available.

Earle, Jonathan. The Routledge Atlas of African American History. New York: Routledge, 2000.
(Ref E 185 E125 2000).
Arranged chronologically this atlas includes analysis and commentary on the maps throughout the volume.


Chronologies are useful for quick facts and dates in African-American history.

Bergman, Peter M., comp. The Chronological History of the Negro in America. New York: Harper & Row, [1969].
(E 185 B46).
Coverage is 1492 to date. Bibliography.

Diggs, Ellen I. Black Chronology: from 4000 B.C. to the Abolition of the Slave Trade . Boston: G.K. Hall, 1983.
(Ref DT 17 D5 1983).
Although coverage is international there is sufficient American analysis for the researcher of African-American history. A bibliography is included.

Harley, Sharon. The Timetables of African-American History: A Chronology of the Most Important People and Events in African-American History. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
(Ref E 185 H295 1995).
A chronology with illustrations covering the years 1492-1992. Categories include general history, education, laws and legal actions, religion, literature, arts, science and technology, and sports.

Jenkins, Everett, Jr. Pan-African Chronology II: A Comprehensive Reference to the Black Quest for Freedom in Africa, the Americas, Europe and Asia, 1865-1915. Jefferson, N.C.: MaFarland & Company, 1998.
(Ref E 185.2 J46 1998).
Although this chronology covers the complete African diaspora there is a lot of information on the experience within the United States.

Sloan, Irving J. The American Negro, a Chronology and Fact Book. Dobbs Ferry, N. Y.: Oceana, 1965.
(E 185 S57).
Coverage begins in 1442. Appendices include statistics.


The three bibliographies of diaries offer a number of African-American research possibilities. A separate DIARIES handout is also available in the handout racks at the Public Services Desk.

Arksey, Laura. American Diaries: an annotated Bibliography of Published Diaries and Journals. Detroit: Gale Research, 1983-1987. 2 vol.
(Ref CT 214 A73 1983).
Excellent indexes enhance the use of this bibliography. Coverage is 1492-1980. African-Americans are included.

Goodfriend, Joyce D. The Published Diaries and Letters of American Women: an Annotated Bibliography. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1987.
(Ref CT 3260 G65 1987).
Coverage is 1669-1982.

Havlice, Patricia P. And so to Bed: a Bibliography of Diaries Published in English . Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow, 1987.
(Ref CT 25 H38 1987).
International coverage is provided in this bibliography. Dates of inclusion are 1838-1983.


King, Anita, comp. Contemporary Quotations in Black. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997.
(Ref E 184.6 C665 1997).
Over 1000 quotations, most from 1990 to 1997, are available. Arranged alphabetically by individual.

Newman, Richard. African American Quotations. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press, 1998.
(Ref PN 6081.3 A36 1998).
This reference work is arranged alphabetically by topic. Name, subject, and occupation indexes are provided.

Oral History

Carrier Library has several bibliographies listing available oral history tapes. The following bibliographies include listings for African-Americans. The tapes, and transcripts of the tapes, are not available here. Check with the Public Services Desk for assistance in obtaining oral history materials.

The Black Women Oral History Project From the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe College. Westport, Conn.: Meckler 1991. 10 vol.
(E 185.86 B524 1991)
Transcripts of over seventy women are contained in these volumes. A guide to the collection is available with the set and in the Reference Collection. The guide gives brief information on each individual and notes when the transcribing took place.

Columbia University. Oral History Research Office. The Oral History Collection of Columbia University. [4th ed.]. New York: Oral History Research Office, 1979.
(Ref E 169.1 C648 1979).

Havlice, Patricia P. Oral History: a Reference Guide and Annotated Bibliography. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1985.
(Ref D 16.14 H38 1985).

Meckler, Alan M., comp. Oral History Collections. New York: Bowker, 1975.
(Ref AI 3 M4).

Smith, Allen. Directory of Oral History Collections. Phoenix: Oryx, 1988.
(Ref D 16.14 S54 1988).


Speeches can offer primary source information and give the viewpoints and ideas of an individual at a given point in time.

Representative American Speeches. New York: H. W. Wilson. 1940/41, 1943/44- . annual.
(PS 668 B3).
Speeches by and about African-Americans are included.

Sutton, Roberta B. Speech Index; an Index to 259 Collections of World Famous Orations and Speeches for Various Occasions. 4th ed., rev. and enl. New York: Scarecrow, 1966.
(Ref AI 3 S85 1966).
Outstanding bibliography of speeches from all time periods. African-Americans are included. A supplement covering 1966-1980 is located at the same call number.

Vital Speeches of the Day. 1936- .
(Bound Periodicals).
A bi-weekly periodical printing major speeches. A cumulated index for 1934-1959 is shelved with the bound periodicals. This periodical is indexed in the Readers'Guide to Periodical Literature.


In addition to the sources listed here general books on African-American history may include statistical material.

Cramer, Clayton E. Black Demographic Data, 1790-1860: A Sourcebook. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1997.
(E 185.18 C73 1997).
The first half of this book is a series of essays on various aspects of Blacks in the United States. The final half of the book is a series of statistical graphs. Good bibliography.

Garwood, Alfred N., ed. Black Americans: a Statistical Sourcebook. Boulder, Colo.: Number & Concepts, 1993.
(Ref E 185.5 S512 1993).
Arrangement is by broad subject. Tables note the data origination. Some tables have information back to the 1970's.

Guide to U.S. Government Statistics. McLean, Va.: Documents Index, 1992/93.
(Ref Z 7554 U5 G8).
Subject oriented index listing statistical sources. There are a number of entries for African-American tables. Current statistics only.

Horton, Carrell P., ed. Statistical Record of Black America. 4th ed. Detroit: Gale, 1997.
(Ref E 185.5 S7 1997).
Arranged into fifteen subject categories this source offers comprehensive statistical coverage for Black Americans. A bibliography is included.

Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1878- . annual.
(Ref HA 202 A35).
The years 1878-1955 are located on microfiche in Media Resources. This is the official source of American statistics.

United States. Bureau of the Census. Bureau of the Census Catalog of Publications, 1790-1972. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1974.
(Ref HA 205 D82 1974).
Useful for its historical listing of all census publications in the section entitled Catalog of United States Census Publications, 1790-1945 by Henry J. Dubester. Each entry in this bibliography has a unique Dubester number. A number of historical publications furnishing statistics on African-Americans are included.

United States. Bureau of the Census. Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1975. 2 vol.
(Ref HA 202 A385 1975).
Statistics include the full range of the American experience from the earliest colonial times.

United States. Bureau of the Census. Negro Population in the United States, 1790-1915 . New York: Arno, 1968.
(HA 205 A33 1968).
Major statistical source for the time period covered. Topical arrangement.

United States. Bureau of the Census. Negroes in the United States, 1920-1932. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1935.
(HA 205 A33 1920-32).
Comprehensive coverage for the time period.

United States. Bureau of the Census. The Social and Economic Status of the Black Population in the United States: an Historical View, 1790-1978. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1979.
(Gov Doc C 3.186:P23/80).
Topical chapters in this statistical work cover such areas as housing, education, income, etc.

United States. National Center for Education Statistics. Historically Black Colleges and Universities, 1976-1990. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1992.
(Gov Doc ED 1.302:B56).
Detailed statistical analysis. Some tables include statistics on individual institutions.


See also the separate handout entitled HISTORY - CENSUS AND DEMOGRAPHY. This is available in the handout racks near the Public Services Desk.

Stuckert, Robert P. Black Populations of Southern Appalachian Counties. Berea, Ky.: Berea College, 1987.
(E 185.912 S78 1987).
Stuckert includes census figures from 1850 to 1980. Geographic coverage is from Maryland in the North to Alabama and Georgia in the South.


The books in this section suggest where African-American history writing has been and may be going. Historiography is useful in research to obtain an understanding of how historians, and other writers, are viewing the history of a subject area.

Hine, Darlene C., ed. The State of Afro-American History: Past, Present, and Future . Baton Rouge, La.: Louisiana State University, 1986.
(E 184.5 S83 1986).
Topical essays. Scholarly.

Meier, August. Black History and the Historical Profession, 1915-80. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois, 1986.
(E 184.65 M45 1986).
Scholarly work with an excellent bibliographical essay.

Quarles, Benjamin. Black Mosaic: Essays in Afro-American History and Historiography . Amherst, Mass.: University of Massachusetts, 1988.
(E 185 Q19 1988).
Essays are chronologically arranged. Scholarly.

Thorpe, Earl E. Black Historians; a Critique. New York: Morrow, [1969].
(E 175 T5 1971).
Arranged chronologically according to black historians and their work. Scholarly. Bibliography.


Carrier has other genealogy books providing information on how to perform genealogical research in addition to these books on African-American genealogy.

Blockson, Charles L. Black Genealogy. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1977.
(CS 21 B55).
Covers all aspects of genealogy research for the African-American. Bibliography.

Lawson, Sandra M., comp. Generations Past: a Selected List of Sources for Afro-American Genealogical Research. Washington, D. C.: Library of Congress, 1988.
(Gov Doc LC1.12/2:Af8/4).
Bibliography of key sources held at the Library of Congress. The major portion of the book is arranged by state. Other types of material include bibliographies, periodicals, newspaper sources, etc.

Smith, Jessie C., ed. Ethnic Genealogy: a Research Guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1983.
(Ref CS 49 E83 1983).
Following an overview of genealogy research one chapter discusses, with source examples, African-American family searching. Bibliography.


Because of original research and extensive bibliographies dissertations have value for advanced research on African American studies. Carrier Library has few dissertations. Check at the reference desk for assistance on how to obtain this type of information.

Comprehensive Dissertation Index. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International. 1861-1989.
(Index/Abstracts Area).
This index lists, by keyword and author, all dissertations produced in the United States through 1989.

Disertation Abstracts.
Electronic Text
This database has indexing for American dissertations beginning in 1861. Only an abstract of the dissertation is available.

Dissertation Abstracts International. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International. 1938-1991.
(Index/Abstracts Area).


Directories are useful in locating resources in other libraries. Generally these sources are for the advanced researcher and/or for the individual that has time to either travel to the library of interest or have interlibrary loan materials sent. Information in a directory can contain such information as interlibrary loan possibilities, bibliographies or other types of information, and advice from a subject specialist.

Ash, Lee. Subject Collections: a Guide to Special Book Collections and Subject Emphases as Reported by University, College, Public, and Special Libraries and Museums in the United States and Canada. 7th ed., rev. and enl. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1993.
(Ref Z 688 A2 A8 1993).
In a subject arrangement Ash lists libraries having outstanding collections of materials. Useful to determine libraries having additional research sources.

Associations Unlimited.
Electronic Text.
African-American associations are included.

The Black Resource Guide. 10th. Washington, D. C.: R. B. Johnson, [1993?].
(Ref E 185.5 B59 1993).
Subject arranged. A wide variety of organizations and individuals are listed.

Curtis, Nancy C. Black Heritage Sites: An African American Odyssey and Finders Guide . Chicago: American Library Association, 1996.
(Ref E 159 C95 1996).
Arranged by region each section has an introduction for the region followed by state entries. For each site a description of its importance is followed by a note listing address, hours open, etc.

Directory of Historical Societies and Agencies in the United States and Canada. 14th ed. Nashville, Tenn.: American Association for State and Local History, 1990.
(Ref E 172 A538).
Arranged by state and city. Lists historical agencies and provides information on their programs. Indexes include a section on ethnic groups.

Loth, Calder, ed. Virginia Landmarks of Black History: Sites on the Virginia Landmarks Register and the National Register of Historic Places. Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1995.
(Ref E 185.93 V8 V57 1995).
Over sixty sites are highlighted in this illustrated work.

Payne, Wardell J., ed. Directory of African American Religious Bodies: a Compendium by the Howard University School of Divinity. Washington, D. C.: Howard University, 1991.
(Ref BR 563 N4 D57 1991).
Comprehensive directory listing denominations with detailed information including statistics on areas as membership. Essays on the African-American church are provided. A bibliography completes the book.

Research Centers Services and Directories.
Electronic Text
Lists nonprofit, and usually academic, research centers that have advanced research on topics such as African-American studies.

United States. National Historical Publications and Records Commission. Directory of Archives and Manuscript Repositories in the United States. 2nd ed. Phoenix: Oryx, 1988.
(Ref CD 3020 U54 1988).
State and city arrangement listing information about archival and manuscript repositories. Addresses, telephone numbers, years of coverage, and any publications are included.

Databases and Article Indexes

Below are links to a selection of electronic resources that are most useful for research in African-American History.  Remember, however, that history encompasses many areas of endeavor (e.g., Education, Art, Economics), so you will wish to check all databases that cover your area and time period of interest.  Click here for Research Resources Home, where you may browse for other useful resources.


A. General Indexes

America: History and Life. 1964- . (1982- . on CD).
Black Studies on Disc. 1989- . CD
Combined Retrospective Index to Journals in History. 1838-1974.
Education Index. 1929- .
ERIC. 1966- . CD.
Essay and General Literature Index. 1900- .
Humanities Index. 1974-1982 . (1984- . on CD).
Index to Black Periodicals. 1984-1993. From 1975-1983 this was entitled Index to Periodical Articles by and about Blacks.
Index to Legal Periodicals and Books. 1981- . CD. Available as a print index from 1952-1980 .
Index to Religious Periodical Literature. 1949-1977.
International Political Science Abstracts. 1979- .
The Music Index. 1949-1975.
New York Times Index. 1851-2004.
Newspaper Abstracts. 1985- . CD
Poole's Index to Periodical Literature. 1802-1906.
Psychological Abstracts. 1927- . From 1974 to date this is also available as a CD-ROM (PsycLIT) .
Public Affairs Information Service. Bulletin. 1917-1921, 1923-1924, 1929- . (1976- . on CD).
Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature. 1890- . (1984- . on CD).
Religion Index One: Periodicals. 1977- .
Social Sciences and Humanities Index. 1965-1974.
Social Sciences Citation Index. 1976-1986.
Social Sciences Index. vol. 1-8, April 1974 - March 1982.
Women Studies Abstracts. 1972- .
Women's Studies on Disc. 1988- . CD

B. Government Documents Indexes

The titles listed here index Government Documents from 1774 to the present day. These are the standard indexes which are available in all research libraries. Government documents are available throughout the complete time span of the United States Government on African-Americans. This material is useful for obtaining the official Government position as it has been changed/altered over the years.

CIS Annual. 1970- .
(Index/Abstracts Area).
Index to Congressional Hearings, Documents, and Reports.

Congressional Information Service. CIS U.S. Serial Set Index. 1975-1978. 36 vol.
(Ref Z 1223 Z9 C65 1975).
This indexes the Serial Set from 1789-1969. Beginning in 1970 the CIS Annual indexes this material. Carrier Library currently has the Serial Set on microfiche (in Government Documents) from 1789-1881 and 1957- .

GPO-CD. July 1976- . (CD-ROM).
The standard indexing source for government documents since 1976.

Index to U.S. Government Periodicals. 1970-1978.
(Index/Abstract Table 1).
This indexes Government Document Journal Articles.

Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications. 1939- .
(Government Documents).
This is the main print index to United States documents. There are cumulative indexes for this title covering various time periods from 1941-1976.

Poore, Benjamin P. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Government Publications of the United States, September 5,1774 - March 4, 1881. 1885. 2 vol.
(Ref Z 1223 A1885d).
The best index covering all Government Documents for the years noted.

United States. Department of the Interior. Division of Documents. ...Comprehensive Index to the Publications of the United States Government, 1881-1893. 1905. 2 vol.
(Ref Z 1223 A 1970).
This continues the indexing of Poore (above).

U.S. Government Periodicals Index. 1992- .
Electronic Text.
This indexes government document periodical articles.

United States. Superintendent of Documents. Catalog of the Public Documents of the Congress and of All Departments of the Government of the United States.... 1893-1940.
(Ref Z 1223 A13).
Commonly known as the "Document Catalog." Indexes documents for the years noted.


The journals listed here represent the ones specifically having material on African-American history.

The Black Scholar. 1976- .
Black World. 1970-1976.
Ebony. 1969- .
Jet. 1985- .
Journal of Black Studies. 1983- .
The Journal of Negro Education. 1969- .
The Journal of Negro History. 1916- . The leading journal on African-American history.
Negro Digest. 1968-1970.
Negro History Bulletin. 1967- .
Phylon. 1940- .
The Review of Black Political Economy. 1977- .
Sage: a Scholarly Journal on Black Women. 1984- .


Carrier Library has two African-American newspapers. Other newspapers, e.g. the Washington Post and the New York Times, will be useful in African-American historical research.

Afro-American. current year.
Pittsburgh Courier. 1923- .
From 1950-1954 this was the Courier. From 1966 on it is the New Pittsburgh Courier. All microfilm is located under Pittsburgh Courier.

Danky, James P., ed. African-American Newspapers and Periodicals: A National Bibliography . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998.
(Ref PN 4882.5 A37 1998).
This comprehensive bibliography is arranged by serial title. Entries contain information that can include date of publication, frequency of publication, an editor (for current titles), publisher, address, issue length, advertising and illustrations, previous editors, library availability and holdings, microform availability, etc. Additional contents include microfilm sources, list of libraries with holdings, subject and features index, editors index, publishers index and a geographic index.

Henritze, Barbara K. Bibliographic Checklist of African American Newspapers. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1995.
(Ref PN 4884.5 H45 1995).
Arranged by state and city Henritze lists 5,539 newspaper. Information includes title, frequency of publication, publication dates, and verification source.

Potter, Vilma R. A Reference Guide to Afro-American Publications and Editors, 1827-1946 . Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University, 1993.
(Ref PN 4882.5 P67 1993).
A listing, with additional compilations, of black American newspapers. Information includes where published, dates of publication, and for some times where issues are located.

Electronic Text Sources

African & African American Resources.
Electronic Text
This web page on the Carrier Library Home Page offers access to hundreds of links to African American Internet sources.


Printer icon Printer Friendly Version
Off Campus Access

Learn More...

Liaison Librarian
Patricia Hardesty

Patricia Hardesty

I'm your liaison librarian. Feel free to contact me with your questions.

Cite Sources

CHeckSite Logo
Check Your Citations.

Ref Works Logo
Import and format references.

Chicago Manual The online edition of this classic style manual, on which Turabian is based.

Academic Department

Have a suggestion? Need Help? Ask Patricia Hardesty --
This page last reviewed by P. Hardesty on 1/9/2009.
Contact Us | Contact Webmaster | Giving to JMU Libraries | Staff Directory | Working at JMU Libraries

©2014 | Electronic Resources Terms & Conditions | JMU Privacy Statement
This page may be monitored with Google Analytics.
Last updated: Monday, January 14, 2013

James Madison University logo
Libraries and Educational Technologies logo