Madison Research Essentials Toolkit


  • About the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit

    The MRE Toolkit was designed to equip students to:

    Use and understand the JMU Libraries. A brief introduction to their services can be found in the following video:

    Discovering the JMU Libraries Video (Part One)

    Discovering the JMU Libraries Video Transcript (Part One)

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essential Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit. We hope that this information is useful to you.

    [IMAGE of JMU libraries and title slide “Discovering the JMU Libraries”]

    Narrator: Come and discover the JMU Libraries. In this video we will answer two main questions:

    [IMAGE of JMU Campus Map]

    Narrator: Where are the libraries?

    [IMAGE of the second floor of Rose Library showing study desks]

    Narrator: What’s in the libraries?

    [IMAGE of fighter pilot buckling safety harness]

    Narrator: So buckle up and let’s get started.

    [IMAGE of Carrier Library and Rose Library]

    Narrator: JMU has two main libraries. Carrier Library and Rose Library.

    [IMAGE of the Music Library and the Educational Technology and Media Center]

    Narrator: Library services are also offered in the Music Library in the music building and the Educational Technology and Media Center in Memorial Hall. For this video, we are going to concentrate on Carrier and Rose.

    [IMAGE of Carrier Library]

    Narrator: Carrier is located near the quad and contains books and journals in business, the humanities and social sciences.

    [IMAGE of Media Resources]

    Narrator: Carrier is also home to the Media Resources Center in the basement. Here you can check out DVDs, use PC and MAC video editing software, view videos, and check out a variety of equipment. There are over 10,000 movies in the JMU media collection.

    [IMAGE of Carrier computer lab]

    Narrator: Carrier also has a computer lab that is open during library hours.

    [IMAGE of Rose library]

    Narrator: Rose Library is located near the Festival and contains book and journal collections in science, technology, and health.

    [IMAGE of Rose computer lab]

    Narrator: Whether you are a night owl or an early riser, Rose caters to all with a 24 hour computer lab. The 24 hour lab space is in separate part of Rose. Use your JAC card for access.

    [IMAGE of JMU Campus Map]

    Narrator: Although Carrier and Rose are on opposite sides of campus, they have many things in common.

    [IMAGE of Carrier Library’s reference section]

    Narrator: Each library has a collection of encyclopedias, dictionaries, bibliographies and almanacs for in-library use. This is the reference collection, and it can be a good place to start with an unfamiliar topic. These types of sources give overviews of topics and can easily lead you to other sources.

    [IMAGE of Carrier Library magazines and journals]

    Narrator: Both of the JMU Libraries provide access to thousand of magazines, journals, and newspapers. They can be found in various formats: bound volumes, microform, online through the JMU Libraries website, current issues can be found on the 1st floor of Carrier and the 2nd floor of Rose.

    [IMAGE of Rose Library group study room]

    Narrator: Both Carrier and Rose have group study rooms available for parties of two or more. These are group study rooms. If you are studying in one alone, you may be asked to move by a library staff member or a group of fellow students. Some of these rooms are reserve-able on the libraries’ website.

    [IMAGES of social and study areas found throughout the libraries]

    Narrator: In addition to group study rooms, each library provides some social spaces and some quiet spaces. Typically, the higher up you go, the quieter it gets. If you have trouble finding a quiet place to study, ask a staff member.

    [IMAGE of public computers at Rose Library]

    Narrator: Need to work on a computer? Both libraries offer walk-up computer stations. You can stand, you can sit, you can use Windows or a MAC. But please use the libraries’ computers for schoolwork. This is especially true around mid-term and finals.

    [IMAGE of copy machines]

    Narrator: Both libraries offer copying and printing services, and we never run out of ink or paper. We do charge for copying and printing though.

    [IMAGE of a cash register]

    Narrator: Don’t have any cash? No worries! You don’t need cash to print or copy in the JMU Libraries.

    [IMAGE of a stick figure with a JACard]

    Narrator: Pay for your prints and copies using your FLEX account on your JAC Card.

    [IMAGE showing the three different ways you can add money to your JACard]

    Narrator: You can add money to your FLEX account on your JAC card three ways: online, going to Card Services in Warren Hall, and adding cash using a DART machine.

    [IMAGE of coffee cup]

    Narrator: Both libraries offer a delicious array of coffee and snacks.

    [IMAGE of child with a puzzled look]

    Narrator: Don’t have a clue when the libraries are open?

    [IMAGE of library website homepage]

    Narrator: Just click on the hours, contacts and maps link at the top of the libraries web page. During the semester, we are open from 7:30AM until 2AM Monday-Thursday. We are open Saturdays, 10-8 and Sundays 10AM-2AM. During exam week, we are open 24-7. We are here to help. If you have any other questions about the libraries, click on the Ask-the-Library button on the main library webpage.

    End of Discovering the JMU Libraries Video Transcript (Part One)

    As well as complete the following learning objectives:

    1. Recognize that information is available in a variety of formats
    2. Determine when information is needed and find it
    3. Evaluate the quality of information
    4. Use information effectively
    5. Employ appropriate technologies to complete assignments
    6. Use information ethically and legally

    For a quick overview of the MRE Toolkit and these learning objectives watch the following video:

    Discovering the JMU Libraries Video (Part Two)

    Discovering the JMU Libraries Video Transcript (Part Two)

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit. In this tutorial, we are going to talk about why you are required to complete these tutorials and the Madison Research Essential Skills Test or MREST early in your career at JMU.

    [IMAGE of the Cluster One-Skills for the 21st Century webpage screen]

    Narrator: The requirements in Cluster One in General Education are designed to be foundational to your university experience. In other words, the skills that you will learn during this period will be ones that will create the foundation for all of the courses to follow. In Cluster One, you will learn how to organize a public speech, write in an academic setting, and develop critical thinking skills. All of these will be important foundational skills that you will rely on time and again throughout your studies.

    [IMAGE of the Cluster One-Skills for the 21st Century Information Literacy details]

    Narrator: Another important part of your Cluster One experience is learning how to build your information literacy skills. While you don’t take a class specific to this goal—you do complete this tutorial and a related test that is designed so that you might demonstrate that you have developed these information literacy skills. It is important that you don’t just view this material as “something I need to learn to pass a test.” These skills will become very important—both within your General Education courses and within your major-specific ones. Your professors will expect you to be information literate.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy spelled out in Scrabble tiles]

    Narrator: Let’s start by considering the term information literacy. What does it mean to be information literate? In short, it means knowing how to know. While this might seem confusing, you will get a clearer idea of this concept as you navigate these tutorials.

    [IMAGE of Madison Research Essentials Skills Test spelled out]

    Narrator: In the end, we do expect you to be able to demonstrate your competency of six information learning objectives by successfully taking and passing the MREST (Remember? This is an acronym for the Madison Research Essentials Skills Test—become familiar as you will hear reference to this frequently). Let’s look at an overview of what you will be learning to meet this information literacy proficiency requirement…

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy Competency: Recognize that information is available in a variety of forms, including, but not limited to text, images, and visual media.]

    Narrator: In the first tutorial (ZOOM), we will ask that you recognize that information is available in a variety of formats including—but not limited to—text, images, and visual media. While academic libraries such as Carrier and Rose are full of books, articles, and other text-y content, we also have access to databases that contain images, film collections, and data that can be manipulated and used to make decisions or inform your work.

    [IMAGES of a painting of a ship, a scatter graph, and the book cover for Huckleberry Finn]

    Narrator: Information can take many forms—it can be a painting, a graph, or the traditional print resource. Recognizing that information is available in a variety of formats requires you to understand that information takes many forms and is all around you. If you haven’t yet visited Carrier or Rose Library, plan to stop by and see all of the information available!

    [IMAGE of Information Formats close-up within the MRE Toolkit on the library webpage]

    Narrator: We will talk more extensively about this topic within the Toolkit tutorial with the heading, Information Formats.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy Competency: Determine when information is needed and find it efficiently using a variety of reference sources.]

    Narrator: Once you understand that information is all around you, we ask you to (ZOOM) determine when information is needed and be able to find it efficiently using a wide variety of sources. While this may initially seem simple—it is more difficult that you would think and is actually comprised of two parts.

    [IMAGE woman with glasses thinking with a whiteboard in the background]

    Narrator: First, you need to understand when you have a gap in your own knowledge base. When you don’t know something, it should be a nudge that you need to acquire more information so that you can know. Individuals new to academia sometimes have a difficult time determining when they don’t know—so this outcome can prove challenging.

    [IMAGE of a male and a female looking at books in the stacks of a library]

    Narrator: Secondly, we certainly know that you have found and used information prior to coming to JMU; however, you have now entered a community of learners and scholars that is different than the one you came from. Higher education is built upon scholarship and where and how you look for information drives your results.

    [IMAGE of a male and a female working on their laptops in a library]

    Narrator: If you make a choice to simply search Wikipedia, you must understand that your professor might take issue with that choice. If your Internet searching takes you to .com sites, you have again made a choice if you wish to include that information in your research. Both of these methods might have negative ramifications within the academic environment of JMU.

    [IMAGE of the Ask the Library link on the JMU library website]

    Narrator: There is good news! The librarians are available to help you. (ZOOM) Ask them, “where should I look for sources that answer XYZ kinds of questions?” “What kind of source should I be looking for?” “What kinds of search terms should I be using?” “What is the best way to string my search terms together?” All of these questions will impact the efficiency and results of your searches. Always feel free to ask a librarian—they are happy to assist you.

    [IMAGE of the Needing and Finding Information close-up within the MRE Toolkit on the library’s webpage]

    Narrator: We will discuss this topic in much more detail within the Toolkit tutorial with the heading, Needing and Finding Information.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy Competency: Evaluate the quality of information.]

    Narrator: You will also be learning how to (ZOOM) evaluate the quality of information. Let’s say that you are doing research on the value of a college education and you want to determine if college graduates make more money over the course of their working lives than people without a college degree. Which of these sources might be better…a website from a bank that writes student loans or a research study that was done by an economist with years of income data?

    [IMAGE of male student looking at a stack of books]

    Narrator: As a new scholar—you must be very careful of who is providing the information and whether or not that information is backed by evidence or research.

    [IMAGE of the Evaluating Information close-up within the MRE Toolkit on the library’s webpage]

    Narrator: Once again, we will delve deeper into this topic in the Evaluating Information portion of the Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy Competency: Use information effectively for a purpose]

    Narrator: You will also be learning how to (ZOOM) use information effectively for a purpose. Throughout your time at JMU, you will be asked to use resources to support your claims or to inform your own work. When you use a source—whether in writing or in a presentation—you need to use it not just to show that you can find a source, but you need to use it to strengthen your argument or inform your audience.

    [IMAGE of a quote from Frank Weatherman, the last prisoner to leave Alcatraz that states: “Alcatraz was never no good for nobody.”]

    Narrator: Generally, we use information for a purpose by summarizing and quoting—as we see here [image of quotation]—the work or words of another. If you collect sources simply to meet an assignment’s requirement without regard for how the source supports your work, it is ineffective. Even worse, if you write a paper or presentation first and then look for sources, you aren’t using sources effectively.

    [IMAGE of the Using Information close-up within the MRE Toolkit on the library’s webpage]

    Narrator: We will be covering this content in the Using Information portion of the Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy Competency: Employ appropriate technologies to create and information-based product]

    Narrator: You will also learn how to (ZOOM) use appropriate technologies to create an information-based product. You need to consider how technology enhances your product and who your intended audience might be.

    [IMAGE of a woman holding an apple and an orange]

    Narrator: Technology, while wonderful to use, is not all created for the same outcome. Let’s say that you are asked to present to your classmates. You would likely not stand in front of them and read from your paper. Instead, you might create an informative and visually-appealing PowerPoint or Prezi presentation. However, if you were asked to communicate information to the entire first year class at JMU, you would likely opt for a web page that they might access independently. Choose carefully!

    [IMAGE of a woman holding an iPad]

    Narrator: It is important to make judicious choices when using technology. It is easy to get caught up in the ‘bells and whistles’ of a program and fail to connect the features with the content you are trying to communicate. Sometimes, simple and well-planned is better.

    [IMAGE of the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit logo]

    Narrator: If you think of these tutorials as an appropriate use of technology, you can begin to see how the technology does not get in the way of the content. Since we need to communicate with the entire first year class, we chunked out the information into ‘bite sized’ modules so that you wouldn’t be watching “Information Literacy: The Epically Long Movie.”

    [IMAGE of the Information Technologies close-up within the MRE Toolkit on the library’s webpage]

    Narrator: Once again the Toolkit will provide more information on this topic under the heading. Information Technologies.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy Competency: Use information ethically and legally]

    Narrator: Lastly, we will need for you to (ZOOM) be able to use information ethically and legally. Scholarship is built upon the work of others; however, true scholars use others’ work ethically by giving credit to the ideas of others through attribution in the form of a citation. We will also explore the concept that ideas, works, and words have both intrinsic and extrinsic value to the creator.

    [IMAGE of a university building]

    Narrator: Failing to use information ethically—either by stealing it or not attributing it to the original creator—is a big deal on a university campus and, at JMU, can lead to an Honor Code violation. If you keep in mind that the job of a university—aside from teaching—is to create scholarship, you can see why ethical and legal use of information is such an important issue. Scholarship and credibility matter!

    [IMAGE of the Information Ethics close-up within the MRE Toolkit on the library’s webpage]

    Narrator: We will be covering this topic in-depth in the Using Information Ethically and Legally portion of the Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of The Assessment and Testing Center at Ashby Residence Hall]

    Narrator: After you complete these tutorials, you will need to demonstrate your understanding of these concepts by taking and passing the Madison Research Essentials Skills Test (or MREST) in the Assessment and Testing Center in the basement of Ashby Residence Hall on the Quad. Take it. Get it done. This requirement applies to everyone. You will know if you passed or not at the end of the test. If you need help with the MREST, you can visit a tutor in the Communication Resource Center in the Student Success Building.

    [IMAGE of a man sitting in front of a laptop]

    Narrator: It’s not just about passing a test, however. This tutorial and the MREST are designed to give you a positive start towards developing the skills you will rely upon and need throughout your academic career—and beyond. Whether you are writing a business plan, organizing an experiment, analyzing a piece of art, a novel, or a play, investigating an historical event, or even diagnosing a patient, ALL academic disciplines require adherence to established research methods.

    [IMAGE of different tools]

    Narrator: We hope this toolkit of fundamental skills will take you confidently into your major field of study and lay a solid foundation for the next levels of academic research you will encounter.

    End of Discovering the JMU Libraries Video Transcript (Part Two)

    Questions? Click here for information regarding the information literacy requirements in Cluster One of General Education.

  • Toolbox Link to Information Formats Link to Evaluating InformationLink to Information Technologies Link to Needing And Finding Information Link to Information Ethics Link to Using Information
  • Tool

    Information Formats

    In this unit, the student will recognize that information is available in a variety of formats.
     

    Information Formats Video

    In this 3 minute and 40 second tutorial, find out why the form information takes is so important. This tutorial was created by Kathy Clarke.

    Information Formats Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essential Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit. With this tutorial we’ll be working with this learning outcome:

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the first competency]

    Narrator: “Recognize that information is available in a variety of forms including but not limited to, text, images and visual media” General Education, Information Literacy Learning Outcome.

    [IMAGE of a poster with the text “Form follows Function”]

    Narrator: Why is the form of information something we think it is important for you to understand early in your academic career? It is important because the form of information drives where you look for an answer. Let me explain.

    [IMAGE of a big dog sheltering a little dog]

    Narrator: For this example, I’m going to focus on scholarly information that is readily available in JMU Libraries and we’re going to move from the biggest type of source to progressively smaller ones.

    [IMAGE of the Encyclopedia of the Victorian Era]

    Narrator: Let’s say you have been assigned to write and research about something related to the Victorian Era, but you don’t even know what about the era you are going to write about. This is a great question for a really big source – an encyclopedia. And you might have already thought about consulting the biggest encyclopedia there is, Wikipedia. That might get you started, but I’m going to recommend you think about a subject encyclopedia, like the Encyclopedia of the Victoria Era. This four volume set is a comprehensive look at all aspects of the Era. Four volumes. Wikipedia gives the era 14 sections, while this encyclopedia covers over 600 elements of the era written by experts in each area. See the difference? What you get in convenience in Wikipedia you pay for in coverage scope.

    [IMAGE of a picture from the Encyclopedia of the Victorian Era]

    Narrator: While browsing through the encyclopedia, I find an entry on poverty and pauperism that looks interesting. Reading through this three page entry, I can find out that being poor was a pretty miserable experience during the era. There wasn’t much in terms of social safety nets and there was a large population of laborers whose skills were becoming obsolete. This entry also tells me about the big differences in the “haves” and “have-nots” and talks about some of the charitable institutions that formed during the period. I even find out there is sensational literature of the era where radical writers tried to bring the suffering of the poor to the attention of the public by writing graphically about the suffering of women and children.

    [IMAGE of an entry in the JMU library catalog of a book, “The Bitter Cry of Outcast London; An Inquiry into the Condition of the Abject Poor”]

    Narrator: OK, now the subject is more interesting. I’m narrowing and focusing in on a topic AND I’m finding sources along the way that will help me. This encyclopedia entry has a bibliography at the end that refers me to this book, “The Bitter Cry of Outcast London; An Inquiry into the Condition of the Abject Poor” in our E-book collection. And if I click on the subject heading: Poor-England-London-History-19th Century

    [IMAGE of an alphabetical listing of Subject Headings with the Poor-England-London-History-19th Century highlighted]

    Narrator: it leads me to seven other sources on this topic, including,

    [IMAGE of an entry in the JMU library catalog of a book, “Slumming: sexual and social politics in Victorian London”]

    Narrator: this one, a 400 page E-book about the intersection of the poor and the people and organizations that attempted to assist them. 400 pages. I use this as an example to give you an idea about what a scholarly book is designed to do. It takes a meaty topic and deals with it comprehensively in some depth. A book is smaller than an encyclopedia, but it gives more detail.

    [IMAGE of the e-book table of contents for “Slumming: sexual and social politics in Victorian London”]

    Narrator: This is an e-book, and this book also will cite sources just like the encyclopedia article did. Like this article from the Journal of Social History. This is another scholarly information “form.”

    [IMAGE of a full-text article]

    Narrator: New university scholars often make the mistake of thinking that the shorter the source the easier it will be to use. Not true. It is important for you to consider what type of source you need at a given time and then figure out what type to use. That is why understanding that information comes to you in a variety of forms is so important.

    [IMAGE of JMU Libraries list of Databases and Resources webpage]

    Narrator: And it isn’t just books. Just a look at the Research Database page in the libraries can give you sense of the variety of the kinds of information we provide. Statistics, music, films as well as resources tailored for specific disciplines are readily available in your libraries.

    [IMAGE of the JMU Libraries Background Information webpage]

    Narrator: We don’t need you to decipher what kind of source you need, but you should certainly ask a librarian for assistance. When you are new to a topic, consider a big source to get you going. JMU Libraries offers many subject encyclopedias in both print and electronic editions to get you going. Consult the Background Information Page on the libraries website to get started

    [IMAGE of the JMU Libraries website homepage focusing on the Ask the Library link]

    Narrator: or ask for help either in person or by clicking on the Ask-the-Library button.

    End of Information Formats Video Transcript

  • Tool

    Needing And Finding Information

    In this unit, the student will determine when information is needed and find it efficiently using a variety of sources.
     

    Needing Information Video

    This 3 minute and 9 second tutorial is about knowing when you don't know something. This tutorial was created by Kathy Clarke and Michael Mungin.

    Needing Information Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essential Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the second competency]

    Narrator: In this module we are going to talk about this general education information literacy learning outcome; “Determine when information is needed and find it using a variety of reference sources.“ Since this is really two outcomes smashed together with an AND, we break this module into two tutorials, and in this video we’ll talk about “determine when information is needed.”

    [IMAGE of child with hand raised]

    Narrator: How do you know when you need to find something out? Generally it is because you don’t know off the top of your head. But this outcome is sort of sneaky because it says “information” which could refer to just about anything, when what we are really after is a certain kind of information that is appropriate for use in scholarly work on a university campus.

    [IMAGE of people dressed for a college graduation ceremony; and an IMAGE of child wearing a backpack]

    Narrator: Really what this outcome is about is knowing when you don’t know something. One of the biggest differences between new-to-college students and experienced scholars is this – an experienced scholar knows where her knowledge gaps are and a new-to-college student sometimes doesn’t, or worse, assumes information doesn’t exist. One other big difference is an experienced scholar typically assumes that if they can’t find something, they can ask for help. Please learn to ask for help early in your academic career.

    [IMAGE of student writing on paper and TEXT with details of a class assignment]

    Narrator: Figuring out what information you need can be easy like when you’re asked to write an essay about a reading assigned in a class. The information need is built in, you just have to carefully analyze the assignment. Easy. But in other classes or work it might look like this; “Find a psychological issue that has recently been in the news and find several scholarly sources that discuss the issue. Provide your citations in proper APA form.” This second kind of an information “need” kicks it up a notch.

    [IMAGE of person looking at a computer screen with her head in her hands]

    Narrator: You need to identify your “psychological issue that has recently been in the news” and put your hands on scholarly sources of some kind and then figure out APA citation style for the stuff you do find. You will see lots of assignments that do this with varying degrees of instructions and requirements built in. It is the responsibility of the student to read your assignments carefully and understand fully what kind of information your professor is expecting in any given assignment. Ask if it isn’t clear to you.

    [IMAGE of a professor standing at a chalkboard]

    Narrator: There is one other thing to consider when you encounter an information need. You as a student and as a person come to the university with your own experiences and knowledge about the things you know about. All good. But typically students are not considered experts; this is what makes you a student. There are experts in every discipline and major – your professors are experts in their fields.

    [IMAGES of Rose Library and Carrier Library]

    Narrator: These experts and others like them write and research in their fields and they have been at it for a really long time (that is one reason why libraries are such big buildings, we have to hold all this stuff).

    [IMAGE of a database record for the article “Only children in the United States and China”]

    Narrator: Don’t make the mistake that being an only child makes you an expert in only child-ness. You can certainly use your experience to see if it plays out in the research about only-children. But you need to rely on the research done by the experts.

    [IMAGES of a cat in a bowl and a question mark inside a triangle]

    Narrator: If you look in your classrooms, around the university, and in your libraries you will find these experts and their work. And that is the kind of information you’ll be expected to locate and use.

    [TEXT that reads “Needing and Finding Information”, www.lib.jmu.edu, Ask-the-Library, Madison Research Essentials Toolkit]

    Narrator: Come to the library or use the chat or email Ask features on the library web

    End of Needing Information Video Transcript

    Finding Information Video

    Learn seach strategies, tips, and tricks in this 8 minute and 29 second tutorial created by Kathy Clarke and Michael Mungin.

    Finding Information Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essential Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the second competency]

    Narrator: In this tutorial we’ll finish the other part of this General Education Learning Outcome, “determine when information is needed and find it using a variety of reference sources.” This time we’ll concentrate on finding information. This part of this learning outcome starts to get into the strategies you can use to find information that is appropriate for university level work.

    [IMAGE of student writing on paper and TEXT with details of a class assignment]

    Narrator: Let’s go back to the topic we touched on in the last tutorial, “find a psychological issue that has recently been in the news and find several scholarly sources that discuss the issue. Provide your citations in proper APA form.”

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries website homepage, zoom in to the Research Databases link]

    Narrator: This is sort of broken into steps for you. Let’s look in the news to find some psychological issue. News sources are all over the internet you could search CNN, NPR, MSNBC, or FOX one at time (and they may charge you), or you can jump into a research database that is nothing but news sources. From the library home page, I’m going to choose Research Databases link in the black box.

    [SCREENSHOT of the libraries’ Research Databases webpage]

    Narrator: This leads me to a page, where I have option to choose News Articles.

    [CLICK on News Articles link, SCREENSHOT of news databases highlighting LexisNexis and the Ask the Library for Help contact information]

    Narrator: There are lots of resources on this news page. For my search, I’m going to choose LexisNexis because the description looks like just what I am looking for. This is also a great place to ask for help. Librarians are always ready to make suggestions or give you ideas about where to look for a particular kind of information.

    [SCREENSHOT of LexisNexis homepage]

    Narrator: LexisNexis is a research database that JMU subscribes to (and pays for) to provide high quality news content to our students. This is not a resource you would find free on the Internet.

    [SCREENSHOT zoom in to t focus on the Hot Topics Link]

    Narrator: See that box in the middle, it is front pages of today’s news, and that looks useful. Let’s click on that.

    [IMAGE showing search results]

    Narrator: Here, I find an article from the August 16 Washington Post that suggests that people with Parkinson’s can often be depressed. And conveniently, I didn’t have to think up any search terms, it was just there, and let’s say that interests you.

    [SCREENSHOT of the full-text article]

    Narrator: A quick look at the article tells me that I should probably look at the National Parkinson Foundation website, and that there has been a recent study published in the journal Neurology. But now I’ve also got more focused search terms than just the term “psychological issue” I am now ready to search for information about depression and Parkinson’s. And, I have my news article. Step one done. Remember to hang onto all the sources you’ve used.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries website homepage, zoom in to the Background Information link]

    Narrator: But what if I don’t know much about Parkinson’s? Let’s find some background information.

    [SCREENSHOT of the JMU Libraries’ Background Information webpage]

    Search Strategy – Using Asterisks

    Narrator: I’m going to use a known reliable source, the Encyclopedia Britannica which will give me background information on Parkinson’s. Type P-A-R-K-I-N-S-O-N-* into the search box. But why am I using the asterisk? This is your first search strategy, the asterisk acts like a wildcard in database – with that apostrophe S at the end of Parkinson sometimes showing up and sometimes not, this little symbol will get both. Use the asterisk to retrieve searches that might have alternative word endings. But be careful, if we had placed the asterisk at P-A-R-K-* we would get parking, parks, and parka which are words that won’t help in our search.

    [SCREENSHOT of the Encyclopedia Britannica entry for Parkinson disease]

    Narrator: This entry from the Encyclopedia Britannica helps me see that depression is seen in patients with advanced dementia but the first article I found indicated that it is showing up with the recently diagnosed. News will give you the most recent findings, but encyclopedias are broader and more basic introductions. Use both. And while you are here, I want to you to see that little cite-this-page feature near the bottom of the screen. Many databases provide a draft citation for you in the style you are assigned. We’ll talk more about citations in the last module of the Toolkit. This article was interesting, but I feel like I still need more information.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries website homepage]

    Narrator: This is a big topic, so let’s consider a book. By typing P-A-R-K-I-N-S-O-N-* in the Quick Search box and limiting my search to just books.

    [SCREENSHOT of search results, zoom in on the details of the first book]

    Narrator: This first one looks great. Now how do I find it? Easy, you just need to know three things, location – which library is it in, call number which is like an address for a book, and if it is on the shelf. That’s it. This book is in Rose Library at call number RC382.P242.2004. But where in Rose Library?

    [SCREENSHOT of list of library call numbers by building and floor]

    Narrator: I can see that the books with call number R are located on the fourth floor.

    [SCREENSHOT of book details in the library catalog, zoom in to call number]

    Narrator: If we look at the record for this book in the traditional library catalog, I can show you two other things. See that call number? It’s a link. If you click it, you’ll get a preview of the books next to this one on the shelf. That is a great quick way to see if you can find other sources that are useful nearby.

    [SCREENSHOT of book details in the library catalog, zoom in to subject heading]

    Search Strategy – Subject Headings

    Narrator: Also, that Subject – clicking on it can take me to other sources as well. Sometimes the Subject is your search term, but sometimes it isn’t. A Subject search is always more precise and will limit your results to only sources that are about your terms versus a keyword search which will search anywhere in the record for your term.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries website homepage]

    Narrator: Let’s go back to Quick Search and not limit by books. Here, Quick Search searches many research databases, as well as the libraries catalog of books, and music and movies as well. It doesn’t search everything, but it can usually meet a need like this one. Let’s try it out and this time, let’s add the depression idea.

    Search Strategy – The word “and” to connect keywords

    Narrator: This time again, I’m using the asterisk with both my terms. With D-E-P-R-E-S-S-* I can retrieve depressed or depression as well as other forms of the word. Also notice that I combined my terms with the connector AND. This means that both my terms have to be present in the results.

    [SCREENSHOT of search results]

    Narrator: And we sure did find a lot of stuff. Over 17 thousand articles, books, magazines. It’s a lot but that does give you a really quick idea about how many experts are out in the research world working on this topic. And just look at the first one, pretty specific and technical, right? Are you going to look at all 17 thousand of these? No, that would be ridiculous and you don’t have the time.

    [SCREENSHOT of the full-text article]

    Narrator: Remember the news article? It suggested that levels of dopamine were affected and that sometimes patients needed anti-depressants. If we added either of those two words to our search the number of results would get smaller quickly. Adding search terms with AND will always narrow your results sets down. You use the AND operator to connect unique concepts together. But we can try to get it down even more.

    [SCREENSHOT of the Encyclopedia Britannica entry for Parkinson disease]

    Narrator: And remember that Encyclopedia article? It said men are slightly more affected than women. Let’s see if adding those kinds of terms will help make this big set of QuickSearch results more manageable.

    [SCREENSHOT of search results adding dopamine AND (men OR male OR men)]

    Search Strategy – The word “or” to connect keywords

    Narrator: Adding search terms with AND will always narrow your results sets down – remember you use the AND operator to connect unique concepts together. You use the term OR when you are connecting synonyms or related terms. Usually this is done when the original search did not find enough results. We saw that men are slightly more affected by Parkinson’s than women. Ok, so let’s see if we can make this even smaller – by connecting it to just males. But there are a couple of ways to say male, right? Men or man or male are all synonyms. Connect those terms together with connector OR. You are ANDING the concept of male to your search by connecting all the possible word choices with OR. We managed to get down a less intimidating number of results, but still probably too many to review.

    [SCREENSHOT of search results limited by date]

    Search Strategy – Limit by Date

    Narrator: If I take this same set of results but limit these to just ones in the last three years, I’m quickly down to a much more manageable set of results. Typically you use date when you are working with topics where the latest results are the most important – breaking technological or science topics, medicine and things like that are examples of this. You might also consider a date important if you are doing historical research, like what were the implications of Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream Speech” when it was given. But sometimes date doesn’t matter. It just depends on what you are doing.

    [IMAGE of student writing on paper and TEXT with details of a class assignment]

    Narrator: See how easy it is to find sources once you start looking? Your libraries are full of materials that will support your work and that you already pay for. Librarians work with the faculty to supplement the resources we need and want students to use. Use them.

    [TEXT that reads “Needing and Finding Information”, www.lib.jmu.edu, Ask-the-Library, Madison Research Essentials Toolkit]

    Narrator: Looking for sources is what your librarians are here to help you do. Look for help by coming to the libraries or using the chat or email Ask features on the library web page.

    End of Finding Information Video Transcript

  • Tool

    Evaluating Information

    In this unit, the student will evaluate the quality of information.
     

    Evaluating Information Video (Part 1)

    Evaluate sources by reviewing the author(s), the accuracy of information, and relevancy of information in this 7:34 minute tutorial created by Bethany Mickel.

    Evaluating Information Video Transcript (Part 1)

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the third competency]

    Narrator: In this module, we’re going to talk about this general education Information Literacy learning outcome [ZOOM in to the text]: “Evaluate the quality of the information.”

    [IMAGE of man looking at laptop]

    Narrator: Why is the evaluation of information a critical skill? Consider how easy it is to find information. By simply typing a term into any search engine, you are met with numerous results. How do we know the quality of those results?

    [IMAGE of two girls whispering to one another]

    Narrator: Think back to when you were younger and would hear gossip of the he said/she said variety. One of the first things you might say to someone is, “who said that?” Or, perhaps, “where did you hear that?” Even at an early age, we become evaluators of the quality and authenticity of information.

    [IMAGE of the word ‘authority’ with other words surrounding it]

    Narrator: One of the first ways we might evaluate information is by looking at its authority. Authority is a complex topic…so be sure to watch the second tutorial within this module for additional insight.

    [IMAGE of a portion of an article about educational technology]

    Narrator: Oftentimes, when you find a scholarly article such as this one, you will see the author’s credentials [ZOOM to highlight the name and credentials of the author] and some information about his or her area of expertise. In this example, we can see that the article is about education technology and that these authors are authorities in the field of education and technology.

    [IMAGE of a portion of a TeachHUB.com website page]

    Narrator: Authority becomes especially important when viewing websites. Oftentimes, you will find websites that don’t have any author information listed at all. In this case, we do have a name provided [ZOOM to show the author’s name]; however, when I attempt to learn more about her credentials, I discover that she is a contributing writer for this website and would be considered more of a journalist than a scholar [ZOOM out of the image] While we don’t want to discount this person’s knowledge, she is probably not the expert that you are looking for…

    [IMAGE of the previous article and the previous website side-by-side with the text ‘scholarly source’ under the article and ‘popular source’ under the web page.]

    Narrator: …in comparison to the authors of the journal article we examined where their backgrounds and advanced degrees are in the field of education and technology. We would call the journal article a scholarly source and this particular web article a popular source.

    [IMAGE of stacked papers]

    Narrator: Another component of authority that we want to examine is who wrote the information. Are they always writing information that relates to your topic? If so, then we can assume that they have some level of expertise.

    [IMAGE of JMU Libraries’ Quicksearch box with the name ‘Billings, Andrew’ typed in the search box on the left side and the search results with results listing articles from Andrew Billings on the right]

    Narrator: Let’s take a look at an example. [ZOOM in to the search box on the left side of the page] If I do an author search for Andrew Billings, I receive a listing of what he has authored and co-authored. [ZOOM in on the search results]: I can see that he has researched and written a number of articles within the field of sports media and communication. This knowledge leads me to believe that he is an authority within this field.

    [IMAGE of a portion of the journal article with British Journal of Educational Technology outlined in red]

    Narrator: Where an article is published is also important in considering authority. Let’s revisit the journal article we viewed earlier. If we are researching technology in education, we can see that this particular article appears in a publication entitled [ZOOM to the words British Journal of Educational Technology].

    [IMAGE of search results that show British Journal of Educational Technology as the journal]

    Narrator: If we search further, we can see that the British Journal of Educational Technology is a regular publisher of content related to educational technology and would be considered an authoritative source.

    [IMAGE of a magnifying glass and a page of text]

    Narrator: Another part of assessing authority is considering the peer review process.

    [IMAGE of the ProQuest search page]

    Narrator: When you search within most databases, you have the opportunity to limit your search to peer reviewed journals [ZOOM to red box that outlined the Limit to Peer Reviewed checkbox] If your article has been peer reviewed, it basically means that it was submitted to a publisher and peers within the same field of study and they have verified that it meets a pre-established criterial for publication. Professional journals are excellent sources for authoritative information due to peer review.

    [IMAGE of page with ‘stay tuned…’]

    Narrator: Once again, since the concept of authority is essential to quality, scholarly research, please view the separate tutorial for a more in-depth examination.

    [IMAGE of dart board bulls-eye with TEXT of accuracy evaluation criteria]

    Narrator: Another way to evaluate the quality of information is to check for its accuracy. There are a variety of ways to do so including looking at the publication date, examining the works cited, and considering the research methods.

    [IMAGE of TEXT of part of a journal article]

    Narrator: The importance of a publication date depends on your topic. For example, if we look at this article and see that it was published in 1977 [ZOOM to the date 1977] with the title “Computers as an Innovation in American Local Governments,” [ZOOM out] we can see that—unless you are doing historical research—this article is not going to give you up-to-date information on the impact of technology in American governments today.

    [IMAGE of TEXT of part of a journal article]

    Narrator: In other instances, the date may not matter. Let’s say that you are examining literary theories through a historical lens. In this case, this article from 1977 [ZOOM to the date 1977] is still going to provide you with valuable information of theories that have been around for a while.

    [IMAGE of calendar with date circled]

    Narrator: In short, the importance of the date depends on your topic; however, it is something that is essential to examine when evaluating the accuracy of information.

    [IMAGE of dart board bulls-eye with TEXT ‘examine works cited’ featured]

    Narrator: Another element of accuracy is the works cited listing [ZOOM to text ‘examine works cited’] When examining a research article that is trying to provide evidence, you will come across references.

    [IMAGE of TEXT of a literature review with parenthetical citations boxed in red]

    Narrator: Let’s revisit an article we viewed previously. As you can see, the authors include references to other research.

    [IMAGE of TEXT of a reference page]

    Narrator: At the very end of the article, you will also see a listing of references or works cited. The presence of these citations indicates that the author conducted careful, evidence-based research. You want to make sure that the information you are evaluating is supported.

    [IMAGE of dart board bulls-eye with TEXT ‘consider research methods’ featured]

    Narrator: The final method for determining accuracy [ZOOM to text ‘consider research methods’] is to examine the research methods that were used. In many cases, there will be a designated section outlining the research methods used.

    [IMAGE of TEXT of the methods portion of an article]

    Narrator: Once again, examining the same article, we can see a portion of the section that the authors dedicated to outlining their methods of research.

    [IMAGE of the word ‘relevancy’]

    Narrator: The last area we will examine in this tutorial is relevancy.

    [IMAGE microscope below TEXT reading ‘a high-resolution benthic stable-isotope record for the South Atlantic: Implications for orbital-scale changes in Late Paleocene-Early Eocene climate and carbon cycling’]

    Narrator: Let’s examine the following article title, “A high-resolution stable-isotope record for the South Atlantic: Implications for orbital-scale changes in Late Paleocene-Early Eocene climate and carbon cycling.”

    [IMAGE of graphic of a head with a question mark next to TEXT to an article abstract]

    Narrator: When I view the abstract—an especially helpful way to get an overview of the contents of the article—I see a number of words that are unfamiliar to me. I may determine that this article is above my current level of understanding and relevancy is lost.

    [IMAGE of a weighted scale]

    Narrator: You must also keep in mind bias. There is a possibility that—if someone is representing a specific point of view—there might be a level of bias. It is important that we evaluate the person’s agenda. Make sure to ask yourself, “who is saying this?” and consider if they might have an agenda. A person who has a vested interest in a company or stockholdings might not be a neutral source of information and the information would not be considered relevant.

    [IMAGE of TEXT of a parking meter indicating ‘time expired’]

    Narrator: The final item of relevancy is one that we already touched on—the currency of information. As mentioned before, make sure to look at the date of publication to determine if the information is still relevant.

    [IMAGE of JMU Libraries’ homepage with ‘Ask the Library’ IMAGE circled in red]

    Narrator: This tutorial should have provided you with some important aspects to consider when evaluating information. Do you still have questions? Feel free to use the Ask the Library [ZOOM to image of librarians and ‘Ask the Library’ link circled in red] link on the library homepage to connect with a librarian. We are here to help. Be sure to view the accompanying tutorial for more information on the concept of authority.

    End of Evaluating Information Video Transcript (Part 1)

    Evaluating Information Video (Part 2)

    Expand your understanding of the concept of authority and its importance in academic research in this 6:18 minute tutorial created by Bethany Mickel.

    Evaluating Information Video Transcript (Part 2)

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back once again to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit. In this tutorial, we will build upon our understanding of the concept of authority and examine how authority is both CONSTRUCTED and CONTEXTUAL.

    [IMAGE of the word ‘authority’ with other words surrounding it]

    Narrator: As we learned in the previous tutorial, authority is an important element when determining whether or not a resource is credible or trustworthy.

    [IMAGE of road sign with different destinations and mileage]

    Narrator: We can evaluate authoritative work in a variety of different ways including where it came from…

    [IMAGE of audience at a movie theatre]

    Narrator: …who it was created for…

    [IMAGE of a younger female scientist and an older male scientist examining a slide of bacteria]

    Narrator: …and how it is meant to be used.

    [IMAGE of an open suitcase with clothes inside]

    Narrator: For example, if you were packing clothes for a weekend trip, you might visit the Weather Channel’s website for forecast information for your destination.

    [IMAGE of a weather radar screen and a hand with a pencil pointing at a weather formation]

    Narrator: However, if you were writing a scholarly paper on weather trends over the last two decades, you would want to rely on a more authoritative source. A scholar within the field of meteorology would offer far more authoritative information fit for your academic purposes.

    [TEXT with checkmark IMAGES next to each line]

    Narrator: Determining the context in which we will use the information is important. We might ask ourselves the following questions:

    [ZOOM in to TEXT] Is the author or creator of a work authoritative based on his or her personal experiences or academic credentials?

    [ZOOM in to TEXT] Is the research authoritative based on clear descriptions of the research methods that were used?

    [ZOOM in to TEXT] Is the research authoritative due to the process of evaluation used before it is published?

    [IMAGE of Facebook logo]

    Narrator: Let’s consider what it means to be an authority by considering the social media site Facebook.

    [IMAGE of a Facebook page]

    Narrator: You might check your newsfeed multiple times a day, upload photos, video, comment on others’ postings and consider yourself an ‘expert’ due to your personal experience. If you were writing a paper on, say, the social constructs of Facebook, you would not need to do any formal research, right?

    [IMAGE of a portion of the journal article with the TEXT Author Affiliations outlined in red]

    Narrator: Wrong! Although your personal experience makes you knowledgeable, there are individuals who have studied and spent significant time researching social media and are considered to be experts due to the credentialing process. Let’s take a look at this article entitled “An Exploratory Study of College Students’ Fanning Behavior on Facebook.” [ZOOM to TEXT of author’s affiliation] When we examine the authors, we can see that they are affiliated with the Department of Design and Merchandising in the College of Applied Human Sciences at Colorado State University. These individuals’ credentials would make them authoritative.

    [IMAGE of two men shaking hands while one is presenting the other with a diploma or degree]

    Narrator: Therefore, the author or creator of a work is considered authoritative based on academic credentialing. In a University or academic setting, credentials count. The authority that you have is not determined by you; rather, it is determined by the authority that you have constructed or built and the fact that others understand your credentials.

    [IMAGE of a house that is under construction]

    Narrator: We would consider this authority as constructed since it is built on a foundation of knowledge that was gained through academic endeavor and the fact that others acknowledge your credentials.

    [IMAGE of two science beakers with contents being poured into one]

    Narrator: Within each discipline, there are also certain methods and procedures that are used to complete tasks that ensure reliability and consistent results.

    [IMAGE a part of a journal article with the TEXT ‘methods’ featured in a red box]

    Narrator: A researcher within the field of genetics, for instance, will be considered more authoritative if he or she lists the various research methods (ZOOM) that were used when conducting an experiment.

    [IMAGE of mountains reflected in a lake]

    Narrator: Solid research should be able to be copied or replicated; therefore, research becomes authoritative when clear descriptions of the research methods used are provided.

    [IMAGE of eyeglasses resting on top of a book]

    Narrator: Finally, one way that the authority of a work is assured is through a process called peer review.

    [TEXT of the word ‘peer’ with boxes listing TEXT reading ‘similar background, similar social status, and similar education]

    Narrator: Let’s begin by defining what a peer is. A peer is someone who has a similar background, social, or educational status.

    [IMAGE of three college-aged females walking and smiling]

    Narrator: Your friends are your social peers, however, as you advance within your selected major, your academic peers will change.

    [IMAGE of college-aged male sitting in the library stacks and reading a book]

    Narrator: For example, if you are a Psychology major, your History and Business friends will no longer be your academic peers—even though they are still your social peers—since they are advancing their knowledge in different academic disciplines.

    [TEXT of the word ‘peer review’ with boxes listing: ‘what are your academic credentials?’ AND ‘are your research methods sound?]

    Narrator: The process of peer review examines both your academic credentialing and the soundness of your research methodology. In short, peer review is a process by which other people—or peers—within similar education and discipline-specific background examine and review what you have researched and written to verify that you have used sound research methods.

    [IMAGE of magnifying glass examining text on a page]

    Narrator: Peer reviewers help to raise questions or points in need of clarification that are similar to questions you might encounter is you were presenting your research—in person—to an audience of professionals within your field of study.

    [IMAGE ‘Social Journal of Psychology on the left side of the page with the TEXT break out box ‘peer reviewed’ and an IMAGE of ‘Time’ magazine with Barack Obama on the cover and the break out box TEXT ‘NOT peer reviewed’]

    Narrator: An article within, say, The Journal of Social Psychology would undergo the peer review process while and article in Time would not.

    [IMAGE of conference table and chairs]

    Narrator: Whether or not you need peer reviewed resources depends on the purpose and intended audience of your research.

    [IMAGE of James Madison painting]

    Narrator: For example, if you were gathering general background information on James Madison’s life such as the years of his presidency, you would not necessarily need to reply on peer-reviewed resources.

    [IMAGE of the TEXT of the United States Constitution]

    Narrator: However, if you are examining how Madison’s publication of The Federalist Essays impacted the ratification of the Constitution from a legal perspective, you would rely on peer reviewed material. In this case, we would be examining authority in terms of context.

    [TEXT of the word ‘authority’ with separate boxes listing: ‘constructed, contextual, credentialing process, sound research methodology, peer review process’]

    Narrator: We now know that authority is both constructed and contextual in that there is a credentialing process, a reliance on sound research methodology, and a peer review process that is required prior to publication in scholarly journals.

    [IMAGE of JMU Libraries’ homepage with ‘Ask the Library’ IMAGE circled in red]

    Narrator: This tutorial should have provided you with some important aspects to consider when evaluating information. Do you still have questions? Feel free to use the Ask the Library [ZOOM to image of librarians and ‘Ask the Library’ link circled in red] link on the library homepage to connect with a librarian. We are here to help. Be sure to view the accompanying tutorial for more information on the concept of authority.

    End of Evaluating Information Video Transcript (Part 2)

  • Tool

    Using Information

    In this unit, the student will use information effectively for a purpose.
     

    Using Information Video

    This 2 minute and 53 second tutorial was created by Kathy Clarke and sets the expectation for incorporating research into your work.

    Using Information Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essential Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the fourth competency]


    Narrator: In this tutorial we are going to work on this General Education, Information Literacy learning outcome: “Use information effectively for a purpose.”

    [IMAGE of a hand pulling a book off the shelf]

    Narrator: So you’ve been to the libraries either online or in person. You’ve found stuff. Now what?

    [IMAGE of students studying on the lawn]

    Narrator: Now it is time for you to use what you’ve found in your own work. How do you do that? I guess it depends.

    [IMAGES of the Dalai Lama and search results from the JMU Libraries’ catalog]

    Narrator: Think about it this way. Unless you happen to know the Dalai Lama, you probably aren’t going to get to have a conversation with him. But you can use his words and work as if you knew him by using library material to substitute for getting to hang out with him.

    [TEXT Working with Sources, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing]

    Narrator: Typically when you “use” a source in your own work, you are either quoting it directly, paraphrasing it, or summarizing it. How should you decide which method to use?

    [TEXT from the slide titled Quoting: 1. Use the author’s exact words 2. Do this when you can’t say it any better 3. Do this when the meaning of the words will be lost in paraphrase 4. A typical university-level paper should have no more than 10-20% quoted material 5. Watch for out of context quotations]

    Quoting

    Narrator: We quote important things, like the Constitution or religious texts, or important authors, like Shakespeare. You wouldn’t rewrite a line from As You Like It - you would quote it. But you need to be careful not to over-rely on quotations to fill up your paper. Your professor has asked you to do the work, so your work needs to show up in your papers. Make your work the star of the show and not just a guest.

    [TEXT from the slide titled Paraphrasing: 1. Using the author’s concept but stating in your own words 2. Practice “say back” to the thing you want to quote 3. Make the thing make sense to you via careful note-taking]

    [IMAGE of person’s mouth showing audio waves going into a person’s ear]

    Paraphrasing

    Narrator: Paraphrasing can give people trouble. There isn’t a formula, like changing every 7th word to make a quote your own. When you paraphrase another’s work, try thinking about what you would say to the author to make her understand that you understand what she’s said. You can actually do that out loud or you can do it with note taking. In either case, talking back to a source will help you clarify what you understand the source to mean, but in your own words.

    [TEXT from the slide titled Paraphrasing Signals • Experts say that ________ • X found in his study that _________ • Others results have varied ________ • A 1998 study found _______ but more recent studies have concluded ______ In each case, I would be expecting a citation nearby.]

    Narrator: These kind of signals help your audience understand that someone else is about to show up.

    [TEXT from the slide titled Summarizing • Distilling a larger piece into a main idea • Helps you pull together only the pieces of the research work that you need • Is selective • Be careful not to use it to misrepresent the whole work • Believing game (Elbow, 1998)]

    Summarizing

    Narrator: If you are using a large source you clearly can’t quote a whole book in your work. But you can certainly use only the pieces you need, but be careful not to mis-use or mis-characterize an author’s meaning to make your own point. Peter Elbow’s believing game is a good way to think about summary. You pretend that whatever the author has written is something you whole-heartedly believe in as if you had written it yourself. Then you can certainly summarize it down.

    [IMAGE of a tank]

    Narrator: But your sources shouldn’t fall out of thin air or assault your reader or audience. They need to fit and they need to make sense. Don’t run over your audience with your sources, use them to inform your voice in a scholarly conversation.

    [IMAGE of an inbox piled high with paper and an outbox with only a few pieces of paper]

    Narrator: The enemy of good work is procrastination. When you put your work off, you are making a choice that might result in shortcuts later on. Don’t fall victim to the myth, “that you work best under pressure.” Mistakes, big ones, like plagiarism, can occur when students take shortcuts. Expect to write multiple drafts of your paper or practice your presentation before to get it just where you want it to be.

    [SCREENSHOT of the JMU Learning Centers website homepage]

    Narrator: Tutors at the writing and communication centers can help with this kind of work. You can find them on the first floor of the Student Success Center.

    [IMAGES of types of information: books piled in a stack, magazines, newspapers, and video screens]

    Citation Styles

    Narrator: No matter what kind of information you are using or how, you need to cite all of your sources to give the author credit for their work in your work. Citation can trip students up.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries website homepage, highlight the Cite Your Sources link]

    Narrator: The Cite your sources link on the libraries website has a variety of ways for you to get assistance with the sources that you’ve used.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries website homepage, highlight the Ask the Library link]

    Narrator: Or you can always ask for help by clicking on the Ask-The-Library button on the libraries’ homepage.

    End of Using Information Video Transcript

  • Tool

    Information Technologies

    In this unit, the student will employ appropriate technologies to create an information-based product.
     

    Information Technologies Video

    This 4 minute and 7 second tutorial created by Kathy Clarke reminds us to match the appropriate technology to the appropriate assignment.

    Information Technologies Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essential Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the fourth competency]

    Narrator: In this tutorial, we are going to talk about this General Education Information Literacy learning outcome, “employ appropriate technology to create an information-based product.”

    [IMAGE of student studying]

    Narrator: When you locate and find information for your classes, you will have to put them into the form directed by the type of assignment you have been given.

    [IMAGE of young boy using a video camera]

    Narrator: But sometimes you have some latitude on how to do that and sometimes you can and should use technologies to enhance your work. But technologies can also be used incorrectly or really badly. What you don’t want to have happen is to lose your meaning or message because the reader or audience is lost in your technologies.

    [IMAGE of audience throwing paper balls at speaker]

    Narrator: This is probably best explained by examples of what not to do. So, let’s take a look at examples of technology gone wrong.

    [IMAGE of speaker with a display showing a bullet-point list]

    Narrator: We’ve all sat through really bad presentations. Slides that are read to us is a classic example or when a presentation just simply isn’t the best way to communicate a given message, like in this example.

    [IMAGE of a display with text in different fonts and colors and many overlapping images]

    Narrator: But slides that move too fast or too slow or don’t have any meaningful order are also examples of technology mis-use. It’s also easy to lose your meaning in a presentation when you use too many features like here. Animations, moving or flying text, or simply pick a background and then write your text in a color your audience can’t see.

    [IMAGE of a young student reading text on paper]

    Narrator: It’s also possible to use the wrong tool for the setting. In some disciplines, it is perfectly appropriate to read a paper to an audience.

    [IMAGE of speaker at a podium]

    Narrator: But in others, it is simply not done and you’ll need to speak from notes.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU website’s Alternative Break Program]

    Narrator: Let’s say you’ve been asked to do a presentation on the Alternative Spring Break you completed for another campus organization. Reading a paper in that setting would be silly. A presentation would be more effective because you can show images of the trip that will enhance your audience’s understanding of your message.

    [SCREENSHOT of YouTube video]

    Narrator: Let’s take this idea a little further. Let’s say for this same scenario you decided to show a youtube video of your trip. If you did that, and nothing else, that would be an inappropriate use of technology. Why? Because you were invited to attend and give a talk. Pushing the play button on the video isn’t what your audience has asked from you. They can do that by themselves. But you might show a clip from the video to help your audience understand why you showed them that particular piece. That would be using technology effectively.

    [IMAGE of bar chart showing progressively higher bars from left to right with the image of a person on top of the bar on the far right]

    Narrator: In research papers stuff can go wrong, too. Let’s say you are writing a business plan and you have included a chart that describes your employee compensation plans. Then go on the describe the chart in a narrative form, you’ve used a feature of the technology incorrectly and wasted your reader’s time.

    [IMAGES of a skyscraper at night with lights on inside the building and a Google map]

    Narrator: Another example is using words when an image might be allowed and more useful. So let’s say in that same business plan you have idea about where you would locate your business. Inserting a map or an image of the location might be the easiest way to help the reader understand, but in some cases, images in papers are not allowed or they are discouraged. Check with your professor if you have questions about that.

    [IMAGES of an old camera and people conducting a survey]

    Narrator: You might also use technology to create new information. Making images, writing surveys, and creating web pages are all examples of this type of work. Here again, you have to think about what you are trying to do with the information to make it work well. So, let’s say you have to give a presentation on something you’d like to change at JMU. You want to investigate increasing the amount of time in between classes. Think about how you’d get your information out - would you make a web page “Increase Time Between Classes at JMU.org” to see how many likes you’d get? No. Would you make a video of a student running to class? No. But you could create a survey of a large number of students and faculty to find out if there is a need. That would be a good use.

    [IMAGE of a group of people listening to a presentation]

    Narrator: That is an example of using technology to create information that will help you make your case. Now let’s take this example one more step. Let’s say you have to present the information and let’s say you have a lot of results. What is the best way to help your audience understand the results? Would you summarize them? Or just show selected answers? It would probably make it easier on your audience if you used a charting function to create some form of a graph to help the data make sense for them.

    [SCREENSHOT of the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit web page]

    Narrator: This tutorial is actually an example of this learning outcome. We need to talk to all new-to-JMU students. We can use these technologies to create these videos so that you can view them as they are assigned or on your own schedule. No one is interested in stifling your creativity. But we have seen students who are trying really hard to do good work, get lost in tools that are designed and that end up hurting, and not helping, your message. Use the tools, but use them wisely.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries website homepage, highlight the Ask the Library link]

    Narrator: If you have questions about using any of the information forms or technology, you can use the Ask the Library button on the libraries’ webpage.

    End of Information Technologies Video Transcript

    Success in Online Learning Video

    This 3 minute and 6 second video focuses on learning strategies, essential technologies, and how to get technical support. Andrea Adams, Alina Clark, Juhong Christie Liu and Taylor Miller created this tutorial.

    Success in Online Learning Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essential Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the fourth competency]

    Narrator: In this module, we are going to expand on this Information Literacy outcome: “employ appropriate technologies to create an information-based product.” The rate of online course offerings and students completing online courses continues to grow. Before enrolling in an online course, it is essential that you are prepared with current technologies and skills, as well as online learning strategies. So let’s get started.

    [IMAGE of young girl at a computer]

    Narrator: Are you motivated and committed to learning in an online or blended class? Do you possess time management skills and study strategies that are required to successfully learn in online environments?

    [IMAGE of woman wearing headset with headphones and microphone]

    Narrator: Do you have access to the technology that you need to engage and learn in an online or blended class? Do you know who to contact and where to get reliable resources when you have technical questions?

    [IMAGES of an old-fashioned alarm clock and a laptop computer]

    Narrator: This module will provide you with information and resources to be a successful online student. The three components we will focus on are: time management and learning strategies, essential technologies for online learning, and technical support.

    [IMAGES of students drinking coffee, shopping in a grocery store, and studying]

    Narrator: To be successful in online learning environments, you need to manage and balance your time between studying, working, focusing on your family and socializing. In addition, self-direction and self-motivation are needed to achieve success in an online learning environment.

    [IMAGE of fingers typing on a computer keyboard]

    Narrator: Clear communication is an important aspect to excelling in an online course. Try to be as clear, succinct, and specific as you can. This will help expedite the answers to your questions about technologies or course requirements.

    [IMAGE of a student using a computer]

    Narrator: You will need a reliable computer and dependable Internet connection to participate in an online course. With the advancement of technologies, it is even more important to have a robust Internet connection and a focused space for online learning. A dedicated learning space and Internet connection will allow you to watch class lectures as video, complete online exams, connect online in real time with your instructor and peers, or engage in asynchronous course activities with classmates on your own time.

    [IMAGE of a woman wearing headset with headphones and microphone; TEXT showing technology support contact information at JMU: Information Technology HelpDesk: 540-568-3555, helpdesk@jmu.edu, http://jmu.edu/computing/helpdesk CIT Support: 540-568-5312, citsupport@jmu.edu, http://sites.jmu.edu/citsupport]

    Narrator: In addition, be sure to collect information about technical support from the very beginning of an online class. Keep the contact information handy, so that you can quickly contact the technology support professionals when you have difficulties. JMU’s Help Desk and CIT Support team are two great resources for help. They can provide you with support resources and help troubleshoot technical difficulties.

    [IMAGE of student using a computer]

    Narrator: Learning online can be flexible and rewarding, however it also requires self-motivation, time management skills, study strategies, a reliable computer, and a dependable Internet connection. Contact the CIT to learn more about resources for taking an online course or to participate in an orientation to be a successful online learner.

    End of Success in Online Learning Video Transcript

    Visual Literacy Video

    This 5 minute tutorial created by Jonathan Paulo discusses the real-life decision making process used when working with imagery and media.

    Visual Literacy Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of the back of a video camera]

    Narrator: Welcome to the visual literacy tutorial, which is important because images in visual media are more widespread than ever before.

    [IMAGE of the large video display screens in a city square]

    Narrator: Digital technologies make it pretty easy for anyone to create and share visual media.

    [IMAGES begin with a digital camera lens, then people in a city square looking at the bright display screens at night, then Las Vegas on the strip]

    Narrator: In higher education and all of society, visual media is used for assignments, presentations, reports, projects, news, ideas and are often created and presented without any written words at all.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries web page]

    Narrator: Since images in visual media play a central role, you need to effectively find, interpret, evaluate, use, and create images in visual media.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries Resources by Type web page]

    Narrator: You probably already understand a little about finding books and other written materials, but did you ever think to use the library for images and videos? JMU Libraries provide various resources to help you use visual media.

    [SCREENSHOT of image databases web page]

    Narrator: First, it’s important to be able to describe an image in media with words and identify its components.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries Resources by Type web page]

    Narrator: Basically, this means that visual media is organized differently.

    [SCREENSHOT of video databases web page]

    Narrator: And you need to think about words to describe an image.

    [SCREENSHOT of Encyclopedia Britannica Image Quest web page]

    Narrator: For example, what if you need a visual representation of a reaction? Let’s say the state of shock.

    [SCREENSHOT of Encyclopedia Britannica Image Quest web page search results for the word “shock”]

    Narrator: If you searched for the word “shock”, you might find a shock machine for nervous disorders from the 1950’s.

    [SCREENSHOT of Encyclopedia Britannica Image Quest web page search results for the word “surprised”]

    Narrator: Maybe “surprised” was the more descriptive word.

    [SCREENSHOT of Encyclopedia Britannica Image Quest web page showing an image of a person with a surprised expression and textual descriptions]

    Narrator: Notice that images may or may not have various descriptions.

    [IMAGE of a man sitting in a crowd]

    Narrator: That brings us to the second important element. Let’s say you are putting together a persuasive speech about the critical need for aid in Haiti. Who is your intended audience and whose support are you seeking? For example, if you showed a picture of the Red Cross working with Haitians in need, would some people be moved to contribute? Or would people assume others are helping and they don’t need to act.

    [IMAGE of people running from a building fire followed by an IMAGE of young children]

    Narrator: What purpose to showing pictures of violence or starving children in Haiti serve within the context of your speech?

    [IMAGE of a crowd running through a smoke-filled street]

    Narrator: Will this be effective? Or would it seem to graphic and manipulative with violence shown out of context?

    [VIDEO of young children smiling]

    Narrator: Would a child’s smile of resiliency be powerful or will it cause you to lose support from those who think the situation isn’t that bad?

    [VIDEO of a young child smiling]

    Narrator: Especially children look happy. You see how this video could serve a different, and perhaps stronger, purpose in a speech or presentation about the psychology of resiliency.

    [IMAGE of Jesus on the cross]

    Narrator: Lastly, visual media can serve a strong purpose and be an effective method to convey your point.

    [IMAGE of Buddha followed by an IMAGE of a woman in a burka]

    Narrator: Just like you are influenced by the hundreds and thousands of images you see every day, you too, have the power to influence others in the way you use images and media.

    [IMAGE of a pie missing several slices]

    Narrator: Think about how a pie chart or visual representation of data can help your audience understand and process your information.

    [GRAPH showing x- and y-axis with a line that has been drawn to look like a mountain range]

    Narrator: There are numerous methods to display data and some visualizations might be more appropriate and more powerful than others.

    [HEADSHOT PHOTOS of Trayvon Martin in a hoodie and George Zimmerman followed by an IMAGE of Trayvon Martin smiling and holding a baby]

    Narrator: This brings us to the next important element of visual literacy which is being able to identify manipulative elements of images in media.

    [HEADSHOT PHOTO of Trayvon Martin smiling followed by a HEADSHOT PHOTO George Zimmerman smiling]

    Narrator: This is very similar to evaluating written information, but simply evaluating visual media.

    [IMAGE of Trayvon Martin]

    Narrator: If you are thinking about what images or media would drive support for your opinion, the use of visual media should be done effectively because you don’t want to weaken your argument.

    [HEADSHOT PHOTO of Trayvon Martin smiling next to a HEADSHOT PHOTO George Zimmerman smiling]

    Narrator: People feel you are using propaganda are manipulating them through your use of media.

    [PHOTO of Trayvon Martin and friend]

    Narrator: What you increasingly see is not only manipulative use of images, but the actual manipulation of images.

    [IMAGE of Barack Obama shaded red and blue followed by an IMAGE of Barack Obama that has been given features of Abraham Lincoln followed by an IMAGE of Barack Obama shaded red and yellow and labeled “communist”]

    Narrator: Think about how often people change an image to convey a point. Often for good. But just as often for misusing an image in a manipulative way.

    [VIDEO of KONY 2012]

    Narrator: Lastly, manipulation is not always malice or bad intentions. Sometimes visual media is used in a manipulative way to evoke a reaction.

    [VIDEO of Michael Moore]

    Narrator: Michael Moore is often criticized for evoking reactions but his intention is to get people to act.

    [VIDEO of KONY 2012]

    Narrator: The viral KONY 2012 video was criticized for evoking reactions especially with the use of the son. But his intention was to get people to act. Manipulation of media has always existed and will ikely increase with easier access to the creation and sharing of media. This will require us to think critically about visual media and have a good sense of visual literacy.

    [SCREENSHOT of the JMU Libraries web page]

    Narrator: And the last and final point is the importance of citing images and media in order to provide attribution and comply with fair use.

    [SCREENSHOT of CheckCite web page]

    Narrator: You need to cite images and video for the same reason you need to cite articles, which is to give credit to another person’s work.

    [SCREENSHOT of search result showing a record for an image and the licensing requirements]

    Narrator: Images that don’t have citations are assumed to be your own. Visual media often has licensing rights and restrictions.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Copyright web page]

    Narrator: If you are unsure, just ask. JMU provides a copyright page with a wealth of information designed to help clarify copyright issues.

    [SCREENSHOT of the Fair Use Evaluator web page]

    Narrator: Including tools such as the fair use evaluator.

    [SCREENSHOT of the JMU Libraries web page]

    Narrator: JMU also provides a list of resources that give you more rights and freedom with the use of media in the collection.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries list of free media for creative use databases web page]

    Narrator: Some resources allow users to reuse media in creative ways.

    [SCREENSHOT of Creative Commons web page]

    Narrator: Creative Commons licenses are increasingly popular as they allow creators of media to give users various levels of rights to reuse the media.

    [IMAGE of landscape at sunset]

    Narrator: If you are confused, always remember to give other people’s work credit and ask if you’re unsure of what you can do with visual media. Have fun. Think critically. And be creative.

    End of Visual Literacy Video Transcript

  • Tool

    Information Ethics

    In this unit, the student will use information ethically and legally.
     

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 1): Introduction Video

    Using information responsibly is an essential part of your academic duty. In this 4:32 minute introduction created by Bethany Mickel, learn what it means to use information ethically and legally.

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 1): Introduction Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the sixth competency]

    Narrator: In this module, we’re going to talk about this general education Information Literacy learning outcome [ZOOM]: “Use information ethically and legally.”

    [IMAGE of a woman sitting on a sofa with a laptop]

    Narrator: Legally and ethically using information can be a bit of a grey area as the digital era pushes our understanding of what is new, what is borrowed, and what is stolen.

    [IMAGE of the feet of a gymnast on a balance beam]

    Narrator: There are a number of cultural, ethical, economic, legal and social issues that surround the use of information for your research. At times, all of these factors seem a bit like a balancing act.

    [IMAGE of a large street sign with the word “Ethics” on it]

    Narrator: Let’s examine the term ethics. Ethics are the moral principles that govern a person’s or group’s behavior. When someone else’s work is used, it is ethical to give credit to the content’s original creator.

    [IMAGE of a reference page]

    Narrator: How one does so is through citing sources.

    [IMAGE of a sign with the words “Stay tuned…”]

    Narrator: Source citation is the topic of another tutorial within this module—so stay tuned!

    [IMAGE of a man brainstorming on a glass wall]

    Narrator: Giving credit where credit is due is ethically the right thing to do. Consider a project that you work hard to complete. You invest a lot of time and effort into the final product. Now, consider someone else using that product without giving credit to you—the original creator.

    [IMAGE of a person writing, “I will not copy again” on a chalkboard]

    Narrator: Plagiarism is an infraction resulting from the unethical use of information, and it is considered cheating. An in-depth topic, please view the accompanying tutorial to learn more.

    [IMAGE of a professor with a complex scientific model]

    Narrator: Ethical use of information is a big deal at the University because, in addition to teaching students, research is one of the mainstays of what universities do.

    [IMAGE of writing in a foreign language]

    Narrator: Ethical research practice mandates that we play by the rules established for using information of all kinds.

    [IMAGE of statue holding the scales of justice]

    Narrator: While ethics help guide our moral compass, legally, we are also obliged to provide proper credit.

    [IMAGE of man drawing a lightbulb]

    Narrator: We must consider not only who owns the content, but also the duration of their ownership and who has the right to legally use the content in certain circumstances.

    [IMAGE of a twisting road]

    Narrator: Navigating ethical and legal use of information can be a complex issue; therefore, let’s begin by discussing intellectual property.

    [IMAGE of a human skull with wheels in the brain and the following words broken out into text boxes: paintings; songs; scientific formulae; inventions; novels; plays; poems; plans; drawings]

    Narrator: According to the World Intellectual Property Organization, intellectual property refers to ‘creations of the mind including paintings, songs, scientific formulae, inventions, novels, plays, poems, plans, and drawings.’

    [IMAGE of graphing materials]

    Narrator: Anything you have written, drawn, invented, or created is your intellectual property and is protected by copyright. Copyright law also ensures that an individual’s work is not used without their permission and/or without them receiving proper credit.

    [IMAGE of a sign with the words, “stay tuned”]

    Narrator: There are certain circumstances where you can use copyrighted material and this is considered fair use. As with many topics regarding the legal aspect of copyright law, fair use is an in-depth topic. Please stay tuned and view the accompanying tutorial.

    [IMAGE of the James Madison University Honor Code]

    Narrator: As you study at JMU, the Honor Code will provide guidance on the ethical use of information within your classes. In college, if you borrow some else’s ideas without acknowledging them, you are in violation of the Honor Code. These infractions are usually resolved through the Honor Council and professors.

    [IMAGE of a courtroom gavel]

    Narrator: In the ‘real world,’ these breaches of ethical use of information can have very real, legal consequences.

    [IMAGE of an article titled “Kolon indicted in DuPont Trade Secrets Case” with an arrow pointing to the words intellectual property]

    Narrator: It is obvious that the need for the understanding of the proper way to use information in an ethically and legally sound manner does not end upon graduation. These issues will continue to impact you beyond JMU.

    [IMAGE of a girl in the stacks of a library]

    Narrator: As future writers, artists, and inventors, you will want to receive credit for your hard work and, in turn, need to extend the same credit to others. The following tutorials will help you use information legally and ethically.

    [IMAGE of JMU Libraries’ homepage with ‘Ask the Library’ IMAGE circled in red]

    Narrator: This tutorial should have provided you with information about the importance of the ethical and legal use of information. Do you still have questions? Feel free to use the Ask the Library [ZOOM] link on the library homepage to connect with a librarian. We are here to help.

    End of Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 1): Introduction Video Transcript

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 2): Plagiarism Video

    This 6:39 minute tutorial provides you with important information related to plagiarism and offers examples of summarizing, paraphrasing, and direct quotes. Created by Bethany Mickel.

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 2): Plagiarism Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the sixth competency]

    Narrator: In this tutorial, [ZOOM to TEXT] we will build upon our understanding of the importance of ethical and legal use of information by examining the topic of plagiarism.

    [IMAGE of the JMU Honor Code]

    Narrator: At JMU, plagiarism is defined in the Honor Code as [ZOOM to TEXT] “copying information, ideas, or phrasing of another person without proper acknowledgement of the true source; writing or presenting as if it is you own information, ideas, or phrasing without proper acknowledgement of the true source.”

    [IMAGE of a university building with off-shoot TEXT of ‘teach students’ and ‘conduct research’]

    Narrator: Perhaps one of the best ways to understand plagiarism at the University is to revisit the information from the introductory tutorial regarding the dual purpose of universities—to teach students and to conduct research to develop new information and ideas.

    [IMAGE of two women talking while sitting on a park bench]

    Narrator: Research and scholarship can be thought of as an on-going building process or a conversation. An author is speaking to you about their ideas, you are “listening” and may “repeat back” what you “hear.”

    [IMAGE of different colors of blocks stacked on top of one another]

    Narrator: Each new idea is built upon a previous idea.

    [IMAGE a microphone on a podium and an IMAGE of a young man working on a laptop and an IMAGE of a film reel]

    Narrator: Whether you are giving a speech, writing a paper, or producing a movie—when you use a source, you cite it.

    [IMAGE of Tragedy and Comedy theatre masks]

    Narrator: The same is also true of the source material. It might be a quote from a play, a journal article, or a work of art—if you use some else’s work—you must give attribution.

    [IMAGE of a lion and TEXT ‘Lions are apex and keystone predators’ and IMAGE of box with arrow with TEXT common knowledge for a zoologist]

    Narrator: There are times when you might encounter information that is considered ‘common knowledge.’ In various fields of study, there is information that experts consider commonly known.

    [IMAGE of a lion with two break-out boxes of TEXT]

    Narrator: While it might be tempting to omit citing this information, it is important to ask yourself two questions:

    [ZOOM to TEXT] Did I know this information before taking this course? [ZOOM OUT]

    [ZOOM to TEXT] Did the information or idea come from my own brain? [ZOOM OUT]

    [IMAGE of two break-out boxes with TEXT ‘Did I know this information before taking this course?’ and ‘Did the information or idea come from my own brain?’ and the TEXT ‘No’ in red with an IMAGE of a black arrow pointing to the TEXT ‘Cite Your Source’ in green]

    Narrator: If your response to either of these questions is NO, then it is essential that you cite the source of information.

    [IMAGE of the U.S. Constitution on the left and IMAGE of William Shakespeare on the right]

    Narrator: A paper comprised mostly of direct quotes is not a good one; however, you should quote when you can’t communicate the ideas more effectively than the original author did OR when you are working with an important text—we don’t paraphrase the Constitution or Shakespeare, for example.

    [IMAGE of a close-up of a woman’s hand writing on paper with a pencil]

    Narrator: In other words, you demonstrate your understanding of a source when you commit to putting it into your own words. Once way to do so is to think about having a conversation with the author.

    [IMAGE of three break-out boxes of TEXT on the left side indicating: ‘Did I simply change a few words?’ ‘Did I use synonyms for the author’s original words?’ and ‘Did I change the original sentence structure while keeping the author’s original words?’ and IMAGE of a blue question mark on the right side]

    Narrator: Whatever method you use to incorporate source material—all require proper citation and a careful examination of the following questions.

    [ZOOM to TEXT] Did I simply change a few words? [ZOOM OUT]

    [ZOOM to TEXT] Did I use synonyms for the author’s original words? [ZOOM OUT]

    [ZOOM to TEXT] Did I change the original sentence structure while keeping the author’s original words? [ZOOM OUT]

    [IMAGE of three break-out boxes of TEXT on the left side indicating: ‘Did I simply change a few words?’ ‘Did I use synonyms for the author’s original words?’ and ‘Did I change the original sentence structure while keeping the author’s original words?’ and TEXT of ‘Yes’ in red in the middle of the page and TEXT of ‘Plagiarizing’ in green on the right side]

    Narrator: If your response to any of these questions is yes, then it is plagiarizing NOT paraphrasing.

    [IMAGE of open books stacked on top of one another on a table]

    Narrator: When properly used, paraphrasing is a fine way to use another person’s ideas to support your writing; however, it is still essential that you attribute those ideas to that author and cite the source. Remember, this pertains to all source material.

    [TEXT ‘Original Passage’ in purple at top of page and TEXT ‘Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of sources materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.’]

    Narrator: Let’s look at this example from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Take a moment and read through the original passage. You may wish to pause this tutorial while you do so.

    [TEXT ‘Plagiarized Passage’ in purple at top of page and TEXT ‘Student often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.’]

    Narrator: Now, let’s look at an example of a plagiarized version of this passage. Once again, you may wish to pause the tutorial while you read.

    [TEXT ‘Original Passage’ in purple at top of page and TEXT ‘Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of sources materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.’ AND TEXT ‘Plagiarized Passage’ in purple underneath and TEXT ‘Student often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.’]

    Narrator: When we re-examine the original passage, we can see that the author of the plagiarized version simply re-arranged the sentence structure and used different synonyms. Pause the recording while you compare the two.

    [TEXT ‘Correctly Paraphrased Passage in purple at top of page and TEXT ‘In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).’ ]

    Narrator: Next, let’s look at an example of a legitimate paraphrase of the original passage. Please pause this tutorial while you do so.

    [TEXT ‘Original Passage’ in purple at top of page and TEXT ‘Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of sources materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.’ AND TEXT ‘Correctly Paraphrased Passage’ in purple underneath and TEXT ‘In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).’]

    Narrator: This student takes the original passage and states it in his own words while making sure to credit the original author. This is proper paraphrasing.

    [IMAGE of smiling man resting his arms on top of a stack of books]

    Narrator: A good way to check to see if you are paraphrasing properly is to close your book and write down the material that you recall in your own words or talk back to your source.

    [IMAGE of Turnitin logo]

    Narrator: At JMU, instructors may opt to have you submit your work through Turnitin. Once submitted, Turnitin will check your work for originality against its vast data base (roughly 45 billion pages—and growing) of digital content that includes archived material and content that is no longer available—as well as student submissions, professional and academic journals, and publications.

    [IMAGE of the following books: The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism; Plagiarism: Alchemy and Remedy in Higher Education; Plagiarism: A How-Not-To Guide for Students; Stop Plagiarism: A Guide to Understanding and Prevention]

    Narrator: The JMU libraries have excellent reference guides related to plagiarism. Educate yourself. Ultimately, it is your job to be a responsible and ethical member of the academic community.

    [IMAGE of JMU’s University Writing Center website]

    Narrator: The JMU University Writing Center is another excellent resource for help with attribution and paraphrasing.

    [TEXT ‘What’s Next?’]

    Narrator: The next tutorial relates to citation and will help clarify the different methods and formats.

    [ZOOM to image of librarians and ‘Ask the Library’ link circled in red]

    Narrator: This tutorial should have provided you with information about plagiarism. Do you still have questions? Feel free to use the Ask the Library [ZOOM to image of librarians and ‘Ask the Library’ link circled in red] link on the library homepage to connect with a librarian. We are here to help. Be sure to view the accompanying tutorial for more information on the citation.

    End of Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 2): Plagiarism Video Transcript

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 3): Citation Video

    Crediting your sources is critical. Learn about proper citation in this 7:12 minute tutorial created by Bethany Mickel.

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 3): Citation Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the sixth competency]

    Narrator: In this tutorial, [ZOOM TO TEXT] we will build upon our understanding of the importance of ethical and legal use of information by examining the topic of citation.

    Narrator: Citation—which is providing in-text or parenthetical and bibliographic credit—is an essential component of being an ethical scholar.

    Narrator: Let’s begin by examining WHY we cite sources. If you recall, we previously discussed how research and scholarship is an on-going building process or conversation. Academic writing is built on the work of others and those individuals deserve credit for their hard work and research.

    Narrator: Citations serve three main roles in scholarly work. Let’s take a closer look…First, citations allow you to show that your research and work is built upon solid research that was conducted by others. It lends credibility to your work. In this manner, you are adding your contributions to a larger body of scholarship.

    Narrator: Secondly, citations allow you to specifically indicate which ideas were taken from others and from whom those ideas were taken. Like an actor accepting an award and thanking those who helped him along the way, citations are the way that you—as a scholar—give credit to the researchers that assisted your writing.

    Narrator: Thirdly, an important part of scholarship is to question and clarify what is read. When you cite your sources, you are allowing the reader the opportunity to investigate the ideas on which the argument was built.

    Narrator: As we learned in the previous tutorial, failure to cite information that is not common knowledge is an act of plagiarism and is academically unsound.

    Narrator: Now that we know WHY we need to cite our sources, let’s delve a bit deeper into WHAT needs to be cited. We touched briefly on this content in the last tutorial; however, it is essential that you cite all of the following:

    • Direct quotes—including entire sentences or partial phrases
    • Paraphrases or summarized material
    • Words that or terms that are unique to the author’s research, theories, or ideas
    • Use of an author’s argument or process of thinking
    • Historical, statistical, or scientific facts that are not common knowledge
    • Graphs, drawings, or other visual displays of data
    • Photographs or other visual images
    • Studies or articles that you reference within your work

    Narrator: As we discovered in the previous tutorial, there are some pieces of information that you do not need to cite including:

    • Popular sayings or proverbs such as, ‘a stich in time saves nine.’
    • Well known quotations like, ‘I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.’
    • Common knowledge including, ‘Thomas Edison invented the first electric light bulb. AND Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun.’

    Narrator: Citations take place both IN the work itself and at the end. When you cite a source within your work, it is called parenthetical OR in-text citation since you are placing your citation within parenthesis within the actual text. Different forms of citation styles dictate different rules; however, let’s take a look at this example that is formatted in APA style [insert example]. How you use the information you are citing will dictate where your parenthetical citation will be placed. Don’t worry! Each citation style has manuals available for reference—we will get to those later.

    Narrator: An alternative to in-text citation is the use of footnotes. Unlike parenthetical citation, footnotes provide the source of information at the bottom of the page. The Chicago citation format—commonly used in historical research—is demonstrated here.

    Narrator: You also need to provide a full citation at the end of your work, as well. These pages serve a dual purpose—to give full credit to the author or authors of work you referenced AND to offer fellow researches a ‘breadcrumb trail’ to follow if they wish to go back and look further at one of the sources.

    Narrator: This sample bibliographic citation is in APA style; however, you can see that the author’s name is listed, the date of publication is included, the title of the book or journal is noted, and the publisher and city of publication is specified. As with parenthetical citations, the format will change depending on the type of citation style you use. Let’s take a closer look…

    Narrator: A common question we hear is ‘why are there so many different citation styles?’ Different styles of citations have developed to address the unique needs of different disciplines. It is always important to check with your professor to see which style he or she requires. As you move forth in your selected major, you will become much more familiar with that field of study’s preferred style. Let’s take a brief look at some of the most common citation styles…

    Narrator: Modern Language Association or MLA style is used primarily in the humanities since it is well-suited for literature and archival sources.

    Narrator: American Psychological Association or APA style is used in the social sciences since it is constructed well for quantitative studies and analysis.

    Narrator: Chicago Manual of Style or simply Chicago is a style that is also used in the humanities and uses a system of footnote and endnote citations.

    Narrator: While these are a sampling of citation styles, they are certainly not the only ones. Once again, be sure to check with your professor for his or her preferred style. As your research skills increase, your proficiency with citing sources will increase; however, with the abundance of information sources including journal articles, books, media, and even lectures, it is essential that you keep a copy of the required style manual nearby.

    Narrator: You may choose to purchase a copy or use one of the reference guides available in JMU’s libraries. These are located with the reference materials and can be used while you are in the library.

    Narrator: Another resource at your fingertips is found right within the libraries’ webpage. CheckCite allows you to pick the type of end product where your citations will appear, select the style in which you wish to cite, and choose the source type. After you make your selections and click ‘Go,’…

    Narrator: …you will be taken to a screen similar to the one shown above where you can scroll through the results to see how you should cite your selected source.

    Narrator: The JMU University Writing Center is another excellent resource for help with citation formatting.

    [TEXT ‘What’s Next?’]

    Narrator: Coming up next, we will be examining the topic of ‘fair use.’ Please make sure to view the next tutorial.

    [ZOOM to image of librarians and ‘Ask the Library’ link circled in red]

    Narrator: This tutorial should have provided you with information about citing sources. Do you still have questions? Feel free to use the Ask the Library [ZOOM to image of librarians and ‘Ask the Library’ link circled in red] link on the library homepage to connect with a librarian. We are here to help.

    End of Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 3): Citation Video Transcript

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 4): Fair Use Video

    In this tutorial, explore the topic of fair use and how it pertains to you as a student. This tutorial was a collaborative effort.

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 4): Fair Use Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the sixth competency]

    Narrator: In this tutorial, [ZOOM TO TEXT] we will build upon our understanding of the importance of ethical and legal use of information by examining the topic of fair use.

    [IMAGE of Muhammad Ali]

    Narrator: Consider the following case. In the mid-90s, the makers of a movie biography of Muhammad Ali, who is considered to be one of the greatest heavyweight boxers, used a 41 second clip from a boxing match featuring Ali. The footage was owned by another company and the biography producers were taken to court since they failed to ask permission to use the clip. The verdict was that use of the clip was permissible under the guidelines of fair use since only a small portion appeared and the purpose of the biography was informational.

    [IMAGE of the main characters from the Harry Potter film sitting at a table]

    Narrator: Now, think about the following involving the Harry Potter franchise. An independent author created a Harry Potter encyclopedia and claimed that doing so was fair use since it only compiled the author J.K. Rowling’s original terms and lexicons and put it in one book. The encyclopedia was deemed to NOT be fair use since larger portions of Rowling’s text was taken—verbatim—from her books.

    [TEXT of the word Copyright with a listing of the works protected underneath including: plays, movies, CD-ROMS, video games, videos, plays, paintings, sheet music, recorded music performances, novels, software code, sculptures, photographs, choreography, and architectural designs]

    Narrator: Before we can fully discuss fair use, we must understand what copyright ‘is.’ Title 17 of the United States Code provides copyright protection for works including poetry, movies, CD-ROMs, video games, videos, plays, paintings, sheet music, recorded music performances, novels, software code, sculptures, photographs, choreography and architectural designs.

    [IMAGE a woman standing in front of a piece of artwork in a gallery]

    Narrator: In order to qualify for copyright protection, a work must be in a fixed, tangible medium of expression. In other words, the work must exist physically for some period of time—even if it is brief.

    [IMAGE of tall buildings mirrored on a smaller scale]

    Narrator: Now that we understand what copyright is, let’s take a closer look at the concept of fair use. For the purposes of scholarship, Fair use, loosely defined, is the reproduction of copyrighted material done for a limited and “transformative” purpose, such as to comment upon or critique copyrighted work.

    [IMAGE of man reading a pamphlet entitled “Lectures and Classes for Teachers”]

    Narrator: Fair use can also extend to the limited use of copyrighted material in teaching, or the creation of original work that includes earlier, copyrighted material, in order to parody that earlier work. Such uses can be done without permission from the copyright owner.

    [IMAGE of a butterfly emerging from a cocoon]

    Narrator: In order for us to further understand, let’s discuss what “transformative” use is. Many millions of dollars in legal fees have been spent as lawyers, courts, and content owners have attempted to define what constitutes “transformative” work.

    [IMAGE of legal documents in binders]

    Narrator: Title 17 does not provide a narrow definition of fair use because the legislators who created the fair use exception in the Copyright Act of 1976 did not choose to strictly limit the definition. Very much like the idea of ‘free speech,’ these lawmakers wanted to leave open the possibility for interpretation of meaning.

    [IMAGE of recording studio mixing equipment]

    Narrator: In 1994 the United States Supreme Court handed down a judgment that helps us better understand the meaning of the term “transformative” in the context of fair use. The case concerned the rap group “2 Live Crew,” which released a record using some lines from an existing song called “Pretty Woman.” A company named NOLO, which specializes in publishing legal guides, provides the following analysis in light of the 2 Live Crew decision:

    [TEXT of the word Transformative with two arrows—each pointing to one of the following: ‘Has the material you have taken from the original work been transformed by adding NEW expression and meaning?’ AND ‘Was value added to the original by creating new information, new aesthetics, new insights, and understanding?’]

    [TEXT of the words Fair Use with two arrows—each pointing to one of the following: ‘Comments & Criticism’ AND ‘Parody’]

    Narrator: With this in mind, we can now explore two categories of fair use: commentary and criticism OR parody.

    [IMAGE of man writing in a notebook]

    Narrator: Let’s explore the first category—commentary and criticism. Consider that you are a reporter for JMU’s student-run newspaper The Breeze and that you are reviewing a new book. According to fair use, you are allowed to quote a few lines from the book in your review. The rationale is that the greater public would benefit from your review…and that your review is supported by the inclusion of some of the copyrighted material.

    [IMAGE of up-close of a person singing into a microphone]

    Narrator: The second category applies to fair use in parodies. A parody, by definition, is a work that ridicules or makes fun of another work by using comedy. One of the most popular parody artists is the singer Weird Al Yankovic. Yankovic playfully parodied work from such bands and singers as Aerosmith, The Beatles, Michael Jackson, The Rolling Stones, and U2. Since parodies require significant ‘taking’ from the original work, judges have allowed for extensive use of the original work.

    [TEXT of the words Fair Use Factors with the following statements listed underneath: ‘The purpose and character of your use,’ ‘The nature of the copyrighted work,’ ‘The amount and sustainability of the portion taken,’ ‘The effect of the use upon the potential market’]

    Narrator: There are four key factors that must be considered when trying to determine whether or not something is considered fair use:

    • The purpose and character of your use
    • The nature of the copyrighted work
    • The amount and sustainability of the portion taken
    • The effect of the use upon the potential market

    [IMAGE of a classroom]

    Narrator: We’ll briefly explore each of these beginning with “the purpose and character of your use.” Non-profit, educational purpose use of copyrighted material is generally favored over commercial use. The fair use statute even breaks down acceptable activities—all of which are components of education including: criticism; comment; news reporting; teaching; scholarship; or research. Be careful, however, just because you are in an educational setting, you are not immune to fair use restrictions. Your use must meet the requirements of each of the four key factors.

    [IMAGE of sculpture with a covering over half of the face]

    Narrator: Favor is also given to transformative work—or work that is not just a reproduction of something already existing. Examples of this would include integrating a famous quote into a paper, or using portions of a song for comment, criticism, or further exploration of a topic.

    [IMAGE of an up-close view of a hand writing in a journal]

    Narrator: Another factor is the nature of the copyrighted work. Let’s consider the difference between quoting portions of an author’s written work and quoting parts of an unpublished manuscript or letter. The courts reason that the copyright owners should have the right to determine the circumstances of first publication; therefore, while it might be acceptable to quote limited parts of a written work, it is often more difficult to apply the doctrine of fair use to the reproduction of unpublished material.

    [IMAGE of a stack of fiction books]

    Narrator: In addition, copyright protection is often granted more broadly to nonfictional as opposed to fictional works as fiction is deemed ‘creative work,’ and—by nature—more closely protected. The same applies to art, music, poetry, films, and other creative works. This does not mean that you are unable to use these resources in your own, original work; however, they are more closely protected; therefore, it is essential that you know whether or not you are in compliance with the following factor…

    [IMAGE of a set of measuring cups]

    Narrator: The amount and sustainability of the portion taken is critical. Once again, the legal system does not specify an exact limit on what is “too much;” however a good guiding principle tends to be—the less you use, the better chance you will be in compliance of fair use. Another key element to examine is whether or not you are taking the “heart of the work.”

    [IMAGE of the Titanic sinking from the movie Titanic]

    Narrator: Let’s consider the following example. You wish to use a clip of the dramatic scene in Titanic where the ship is ‘transformed’ underwater from a decaying wreck to the beautiful ship she once was. Although the clip might be brief, you are using a portion that encompasses one of the most creative scenes in the movie and would not constitute fair use.

    [IMAGE of newspapers]

    Narrator: Another example might be quoting a portion of a journalist’s article that includes the “journalistic scoop.” Once again, this would not be fair use.

    [IMAGE of a large and a small dog]

    Narrator: Art and photographs are often controversial as a user needs the full image. Courts have ruled that users can use a thumbnail or low-resolution image since those would constitute a smaller, ‘lesser amount.’

    [IMAGE of a stack of $100 bills]

    Narrator: The final factor is the effect of the use on the potential market for or value of the work. Money and income become a big issue with this consideration.

    [IMAGE of person carving a piece of wood]

    Narrator: In the court case, Rogers vs Koons, an artist used a copyrighted photograph without permission as a basis for making wood sculptures. The artist subsequently earned several hundred thousand dollars selling the sculptures. The photographer sued and the court agreed that the artist violated fair use. It did not matter whether or not the photographer would ever make a sculpture himself; the image was his and the artist used it without permission.

    [TEXT of the words Fair Use Factors with the following statements listed underneath: ‘The purpose and character of your use,’ ‘The nature of the copyrighted work,’ ‘The amount and sustainability of the portion taken,’ ‘The effect of the use upon the potential market’]

    Narrator: Once again, determining fair use requires that all of these factors be carefully considered. As a scholar, it is your responsibility to understand that—while there is some educational purpose protection—fair use is a very real issue.

    [IMAGE of the library homepage with the Ask the Library portion circled in red]

    Narrator: This tutorial should have provided you with information about fair use. Do you still have questions? Feel free to use the Ask the Library link [ZOOM to image of librarians and ‘Ask the Library’ link circled in red]on the library homepage to connect with a librarian. We are here to help.

    [IMAGE of the exterior of the Assessment & Testing Center in the basement of Ashby Residence Hall with the TEXT underneath: ‘The Assessment & Testing Center is located in the basement of the Ashby Residence Hall on the Quad. The entrance can be found at ground level to the right of the main steps.]

    Narrator: Now that you have completed the MRE Toolkit tutorials, it is important that you take the MREST. The MREST is a proctored test and must be taken in the Assessment and Testing Center located in the basement of Ashby Residence Hall on the Quad. The test is administered during lab hours.

    [IMAGE of the library homepage with the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit portion circled in red]

    Narrator: Even after you have taken the MREST, please feel free to come back often to review the material found within the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit. [ZOOM to the ‘Madison Research Essentials Toolkit’ circled in red]

    End of Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 4): Fair Use Video Transcript