Madison Research Essentials Toolkit


  • About the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit

    The MRE Toolkit was designed to equip students to:

    Use and understand the JMU Libraries. A brief introduction to their services can be found in the following video: Discovering the JMU Libraries (Part One)

    As well as complete the following learning objectives

    1. Recognize that information is available in a variety of formats

    2. Determine when information is needed and find it

    3. Evaluate the quality of information

    4. Use information effectively
    5. Employ appropriate technologies to complete assignments
    6. Use information ethically and legally

    For a quick overview of the MRE Toolkit and these learning objectives watch the following video: Discovering the JMU Libraries (Part Two)

    Questions? Click here for information regarding the information literacy requirements in Cluster One of General Education.

  • Toolbox Link to Information Formats Link to Evaluating InformationLink to Information Technologies Link to Needing And Finding Information Link to Information Ethics Link to Using Information
  • Tool

    Information Formats

    In this unit, the student will recognize that information is available in a variety of formats.
     

    Information Formats Video

    In this 3 minute and 40 second tutorial, find out why the form information takes is so important. This tutorial was created by Kathy Clarke.

    Information Formats Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essential Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit. With this tutorial we’ll be working with this learning outcome:

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the first competency]

    Narrator: “Recognize that information is available in a variety of forms including but not limited to, text, images and visual media” General Education, Information Literacy Learning Outcome.

    [IMAGE of a poster with the text “Form follows Function”]

    Narrator: Why is the form of information something we think it is important for you to understand early in your academic career? It is important because the form of information drives where you look for an answer. Let me explain.

    [IMAGE of a big dog sheltering a little dog]

    Narrator: For this example, I’m going to focus on scholarly information that is readily available in JMU Libraries and we’re going to move from the biggest type of source to progressively smaller ones.

    [IMAGE of the Encyclopedia of the Victorian Era]

    Narrator: Let’s say you have been assigned to write and research about something related to the Victorian Era, but you don’t even know what about the era you are going to write about. This is a great question for a really big source – an encyclopedia. And you might have already thought about consulting the biggest encyclopedia there is, Wikipedia. That might get you started, but I’m going to recommend you think about a subject encyclopedia, like the Encyclopedia of the Victoria Era. This four volume set is a comprehensive look at all aspects of the Era. Four volumes. Wikipedia gives the era 14 sections, while this encyclopedia covers over 600 elements of the era written by experts in each area. See the difference? What you get in convenience in Wikipedia you pay for in coverage scope.

    [IMAGE of a picture from the Encyclopedia of the Victorian Era]

    Narrator: While browsing through the encyclopedia, I find an entry on poverty and pauperism that looks interesting. Reading through this three page entry, I can find out that being poor was a pretty miserable experience during the era. There wasn’t much in terms of social safety nets and there was a large population of laborers whose skills were becoming obsolete. This entry also tells me about the big differences in the “haves” and “have-nots” and talks about some of the charitable institutions that formed during the period. I even find out there is sensational literature of the era where radical writers tried to bring the suffering of the poor to the attention of the public by writing graphically about the suffering of women and children.

    [IMAGE of an entry in the JMU library catalog of a book, “The Bitter Cry of Outcast London; An Inquiry into the Condition of the Abject Poor”]

    Narrator: OK, now the subject is more interesting. I’m narrowing and focusing in on a topic AND I’m finding sources along the way that will help me. This encyclopedia entry has a bibliography at the end that refers me to this book, “The Bitter Cry of Outcast London; An Inquiry into the Condition of the Abject Poor” in our E-book collection. And if I click on the subject heading: Poor-England-London-History-19th Century

    [IMAGE of an alphabetical listing of Subject Headings with the Poor-England-London-History-19th Century highlighted]

    Narrator: it leads me to seven other sources on this topic, including,

    [IMAGE of an entry in the JMU library catalog of a book, “Slumming: sexual and social politics in Victorian London”]

    Narrator: this one, a 400 page E-book about the intersection of the poor and the people and organizations that attempted to assist them. 400 pages. I use this as an example to give you an idea about what a scholarly book is designed to do. It takes a meaty topic and deals with it comprehensively in some depth. A book is smaller than an encyclopedia, but it gives more detail.

    [IMAGE of the e-book table of contents for “Slumming: sexual and social politics in Victorian London”]

    Narrator: This is an e-book, and this book also will cite sources just like the encyclopedia article did. Like this article from the Journal of Social History. This is another scholarly information “form.”

    [IMAGE of a full-text article]

    Narrator: New university scholars often make the mistake of thinking that the shorter the source the easier it will be to use. Not true. It is important for you to consider what type of source you need at a given time and then figure out what type to use. That is why understanding that information comes to you in a variety of forms is so important.

    [IMAGE of JMU Libraries list of Databases and Resources webpage]

    Narrator: And it isn’t just books. Just a look at the Research Database page in the libraries can give you sense of the variety of the kinds of information we provide. Statistics, music, films as well as resources tailored for specific disciplines are readily available in your libraries.

    [IMAGE of the JMU Libraries Background Information webpage]

    Narrator: We don’t need you to decipher what kind of source you need, but you should certainly ask a librarian for assistance. When you are new to a topic, consider a big source to get you going. JMU Libraries offers many subject encyclopedias in both print and electronic editions to get you going. Consult the Background Information Page on the libraries website to get started

    [IMAGE of the JMU Libraries website homepage focusing on the Ask the Library link]

    Narrator: or ask for help either in person or by clicking on the Ask-the-Library button.

    End of Information Formats Video Transcript

  • Tool

    Needing And Finding Information

    In this unit, the student will determine when information is needed and find it efficiently using a variety of sources.
     

    Needing Information Video

    This 3 minute and 9 second tutorial is about knowing when you don't know something. This tutorial was created by Kathy Clarke and Michael Mungin.

    Needing Information Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essential Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the second competency]

    Narrator: In this module we are going to talk about this general education information literacy learning outcome; “Determine when information is needed and find it using a variety of reference sources.“ Since this is really two outcomes smashed together with an AND, we break this module into two tutorials, and in this video we’ll talk about “determine when information is needed.”

    [IMAGE of child with hand raised]

    Narrator: How do you know when you need to find something out? Generally it is because you don’t know off the top of your head. But this outcome is sort of sneaky because it says “information” which could refer to just about anything, when what we are really after is a certain kind of information that is appropriate for use in scholarly work on a university campus.

    [IMAGE of people dressed for a college graduation ceremony; and an IMAGE of child wearing a backpack]

    Narrator: Really what this outcome is about is knowing when you don’t know something. One of the biggest differences between new-to-college students and experienced scholars is this – an experienced scholar knows where her knowledge gaps are and a new-to-college student sometimes doesn’t, or worse, assumes information doesn’t exist. One other big difference is an experienced scholar typically assumes that if they can’t find something, they can ask for help. Please learn to ask for help early in your academic career.

    [IMAGE of student writing on paper and TEXT with details of a class assignment]

    Narrator: Figuring out what information you need can be easy like when you’re asked to write an essay about a reading assigned in a class. The information need is built in, you just have to carefully analyze the assignment. Easy. But in other classes or work it might look like this; “Find a psychological issue that has recently been in the news and find several scholarly sources that discuss the issue. Provide your citations in proper APA form.” This second kind of an information “need” kicks it up a notch.

    [IMAGE of person looking at a computer screen with her head in her hands]

    Narrator: You need to identify your “psychological issue that has recently been in the news” and put your hands on scholarly sources of some kind and then figure out APA citation style for the stuff you do find. You will see lots of assignments that do this with varying degrees of instructions and requirements built in. It is the responsibility of the student to read your assignments carefully and understand fully what kind of information your professor is expecting in any given assignment. Ask if it isn’t clear to you.

    [IMAGE of a professor standing at a chalkboard]

    Narrator: There is one other thing to consider when you encounter an information need. You as a student and as a person come to the university with your own experiences and knowledge about the things you know about. All good. But typically students are not considered experts; this is what makes you a student. There are experts in every discipline and major – your professors are experts in their fields.

    [IMAGES of Rose Library and Carrier Library]

    Narrator: These experts and others like them write and research in their fields and they have been at it for a really long time (that is one reason why libraries are such big buildings, we have to hold all this stuff).

    [IMAGE of a database record for the article “Only children in the United States and China”]

    Narrator: Don’t make the mistake that being an only child makes you an expert in only child-ness. You can certainly use your experience to see if it plays out in the research about only-children. But you need to rely on the research done by the experts.

    [IMAGES of a cat in a bowl and a question mark inside a triangle]

    Narrator: If you look in your classrooms, around the university, and in your libraries you will find these experts and their work. And that is the kind of information you’ll be expected to locate and use.

    [TEXT that reads “Needing and Finding Information”, www.lib.jmu.edu, Ask-the-Library, Madison Research Essentials Toolkit]

    Narrator: Come to the library or use the chat or email Ask features on the library web

    End of Needing Information Video Transcript

    Finding Information Video

    Learn seach strategies, tips, and tricks in this 8 minute and 29 second tutorial created by Kathy Clarke and Michael Mungin.

    Finding Information Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essential Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the second competency]

    Narrator: In this tutorial we’ll finish the other part of this General Education Learning Outcome, “determine when information is needed and find it using a variety of reference sources.” This time we’ll concentrate on finding information. This part of this learning outcome starts to get into the strategies you can use to find information that is appropriate for university level work.

    [IMAGE of student writing on paper and TEXT with details of a class assignment]

    Narrator: Let’s go back to the topic we touched on in the last tutorial, “find a psychological issue that has recently been in the news and find several scholarly sources that discuss the issue. Provide your citations in proper APA form.”

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries website homepage, zoom in to the Research Databases link]

    Narrator: This is sort of broken into steps for you. Let’s look in the news to find some psychological issue. News sources are all over the internet you could search CNN, NPR, MSNBC, or FOX one at time (and they may charge you), or you can jump into a research database that is nothing but news sources. From the library home page, I’m going to choose Research Databases link in the black box.

    [SCREENSHOT of the libraries’ Research Databases webpage]

    Narrator: This leads me to a page, where I have option to choose News Articles.

    [CLICK on News Articles link, SCREENSHOT of news databases highlighting LexisNexis and the Ask the Library for Help contact information]

    Narrator: There are lots of resources on this news page. For my search, I’m going to choose LexisNexis because the description looks like just what I am looking for. This is also a great place to ask for help. Librarians are always ready to make suggestions or give you ideas about where to look for a particular kind of information.

    [SCREENSHOT of LexisNexis homepage]

    Narrator: LexisNexis is a research database that JMU subscribes to (and pays for) to provide high quality news content to our students. This is not a resource you would find free on the Internet.

    [SCREENSHOT zoom in to t focus on the Hot Topics Link]

    Narrator: See that box in the middle, it is front pages of today’s news, and that looks useful. Let’s click on that.

    [IMAGE showing search results]

    Narrator: Here, I find an article from the August 16 Washington Post that suggests that people with Parkinson’s can often be depressed. And conveniently, I didn’t have to think up any search terms, it was just there, and let’s say that interests you.

    [SCREENSHOT of the full-text article]

    Narrator: A quick look at the article tells me that I should probably look at the National Parkinson Foundation website, and that there has been a recent study published in the journal Neurology. But now I’ve also got more focused search terms than just the term “psychological issue” I am now ready to search for information about depression and Parkinson’s. And, I have my news article. Step one done. Remember to hang onto all the sources you’ve used.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries website homepage, zoom in to the Background Information link]

    Narrator: But what if I don’t know much about Parkinson’s? Let’s find some background information.

    [SCREENSHOT of the JMU Libraries’ Background Information webpage]

    Search Strategy – Using Asterisks

    Narrator: I’m going to use a known reliable source, the Encyclopedia Britannica which will give me background information on Parkinson’s. Type P-A-R-K-I-N-S-O-N-* into the search box. But why am I using the asterisk? This is your first search strategy, the asterisk acts like a wildcard in database – with that apostrophe S at the end of Parkinson sometimes showing up and sometimes not, this little symbol will get both. Use the asterisk to retrieve searches that might have alternative word endings. But be careful, if we had placed the asterisk at P-A-R-K-* we would get parking, parks, and parka which are words that won’t help in our search.

    [SCREENSHOT of the Encyclopedia Britannica entry for Parkinson disease]

    Narrator: This entry from the Encyclopedia Britannica helps me see that depression is seen in patients with advanced dementia but the first article I found indicated that it is showing up with the recently diagnosed. News will give you the most recent findings, but encyclopedias are broader and more basic introductions. Use both. And while you are here, I want to you to see that little cite-this-page feature near the bottom of the screen. Many databases provide a draft citation for you in the style you are assigned. We’ll talk more about citations in the last module of the Toolkit. This article was interesting, but I feel like I still need more information.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries website homepage]

    Narrator: This is a big topic, so let’s consider a book. By typing P-A-R-K-I-N-S-O-N-* in the Quick Search box and limiting my search to just books.

    [SCREENSHOT of search results, zoom in on the details of the first book]

    Narrator: This first one looks great. Now how do I find it? Easy, you just need to know three things, location – which library is it in, call number which is like an address for a book, and if it is on the shelf. That’s it. This book is in Rose Library at call number RC382.P242.2004. But where in Rose Library?

    [SCREENSHOT of list of library call numbers by building and floor]

    Narrator: I can see that the books with call number R are located on the fourth floor.

    [SCREENSHOT of book details in the library catalog, zoom in to call number]

    Narrator: If we look at the record for this book in the traditional library catalog, I can show you two other things. See that call number? It’s a link. If you click it, you’ll get a preview of the books next to this one on the shelf. That is a great quick way to see if you can find other sources that are useful nearby.

    [SCREENSHOT of book details in the library catalog, zoom in to subject heading]

    Search Strategy – Subject Headings

    Narrator: Also, that Subject – clicking on it can take me to other sources as well. Sometimes the Subject is your search term, but sometimes it isn’t. A Subject search is always more precise and will limit your results to only sources that are about your terms versus a keyword search which will search anywhere in the record for your term.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries website homepage]

    Narrator: Let’s go back to Quick Search and not limit by books. Here, Quick Search searches many research databases, as well as the libraries catalog of books, and music and movies as well. It doesn’t search everything, but it can usually meet a need like this one. Let’s try it out and this time, let’s add the depression idea.

    Search Strategy – The word “and” to connect keywords

    Narrator: This time again, I’m using the asterisk with both my terms. With D-E-P-R-E-S-S-* I can retrieve depressed or depression as well as other forms of the word. Also notice that I combined my terms with the connector AND. This means that both my terms have to be present in the results.

    [SCREENSHOT of search results]

    Narrator: And we sure did find a lot of stuff. Over 17 thousand articles, books, magazines. It’s a lot but that does give you a really quick idea about how many experts are out in the research world working on this topic. And just look at the first one, pretty specific and technical, right? Are you going to look at all 17 thousand of these? No, that would be ridiculous and you don’t have the time.

    [SCREENSHOT of the full-text article]

    Narrator: Remember the news article? It suggested that levels of dopamine were affected and that sometimes patients needed anti-depressants. If we added either of those two words to our search the number of results would get smaller quickly. Adding search terms with AND will always narrow your results sets down. You use the AND operator to connect unique concepts together. But we can try to get it down even more.

    [SCREENSHOT of the Encyclopedia Britannica entry for Parkinson disease]

    Narrator: And remember that Encyclopedia article? It said men are slightly more affected than women. Let’s see if adding those kinds of terms will help make this big set of QuickSearch results more manageable.

    [SCREENSHOT of search results adding dopamine AND (men OR male OR men)]

    Search Strategy – The word “or” to connect keywords

    Narrator: Adding search terms with AND will always narrow your results sets down – remember you use the AND operator to connect unique concepts together. You use the term OR when you are connecting synonyms or related terms. Usually this is done when the original search did not find enough results. We saw that men are slightly more affected by Parkinson’s than women. Ok, so let’s see if we can make this even smaller – by connecting it to just males. But there are a couple of ways to say male, right? Men or man or male are all synonyms. Connect those terms together with connector OR. You are ANDING the concept of male to your search by connecting all the possible word choices with OR. We managed to get down a less intimidating number of results, but still probably too many to review.

    [SCREENSHOT of search results limited by date]

    Search Strategy – Limit by Date

    Narrator: If I take this same set of results but limit these to just ones in the last three years, I’m quickly down to a much more manageable set of results. Typically you use date when you are working with topics where the latest results are the most important – breaking technological or science topics, medicine and things like that are examples of this. You might also consider a date important if you are doing historical research, like what were the implications of Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream Speech” when it was given. But sometimes date doesn’t matter. It just depends on what you are doing.

    [IMAGE of student writing on paper and TEXT with details of a class assignment]

    Narrator: See how easy it is to find sources once you start looking? Your libraries are full of materials that will support your work and that you already pay for. Librarians work with the faculty to supplement the resources we need and want students to use. Use them.

    [TEXT that reads “Needing and Finding Information”, www.lib.jmu.edu, Ask-the-Library, Madison Research Essentials Toolkit]

    Narrator: Looking for sources is what your librarians are here to help you do. Look for help by coming to the libraries or using the chat or email Ask features on the library web page.

    End of Finding Information Video Transcript

  • Tool

    Evaluating Information

    In this unit, the student will evaluate the quality of information.
     

    Evaluating Information Video (Part 1)

    Evaluate sources by reviewing the author(s), the accuracy of information, and relevancy of information in this 7:34 minute tutorial created by Bethany Mickel.

    Evaluating Information Video (Part 2)

    Expand your understanding of the concept of authority and its importance in academic research in this 6:18 minute tutorial created by Bethany Mickel.

  • Tool

    Using Information

    In this unit, the student will use information effectively for a purpose.
     

    Using Information Video

    This 2 minute and 53 second tutorial was created by Kathy Clarke and sets the expectation for incorporating research into your work.

    Using Information Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essential Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the fourth competency]


    Narrator: In this tutorial we are going to work on this General Education, Information Literacy learning outcome: “Use information effectively for a purpose.”

    [IMAGE of a hand pulling a book off the shelf]

    Narrator: So you’ve been to the libraries either online or in person. You’ve found stuff. Now what?

    [IMAGE of students studying on the lawn]

    Narrator: Now it is time for you to use what you’ve found in your own work. How do you do that? I guess it depends.

    [IMAGES of the Dalai Lama and search results from the JMU Libraries’ catalog]

    Narrator: Think about it this way. Unless you happen to know the Dalai Lama, you probably aren’t going to get to have a conversation with him. But you can use his words and work as if you knew him by using library material to substitute for getting to hang out with him.

    [TEXT Working with Sources, Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing]

    Narrator: Typically when you “use” a source in your own work, you are either quoting it directly, paraphrasing it, or summarizing it. How should you decide which method to use?

    [TEXT from the slide titled Quoting: 1. Use the author’s exact words 2. Do this when you can’t say it any better 3. Do this when the meaning of the words will be lost in paraphrase 4. A typical university-level paper should have no more than 10-20% quoted material 5. Watch for out of context quotations]

    Quoting

    Narrator: We quote important things, like the Constitution or religious texts, or important authors, like Shakespeare. You wouldn’t rewrite a line from As You Like It - you would quote it. But you need to be careful not to over-rely on quotations to fill up your paper. Your professor has asked you to do the work, so your work needs to show up in your papers. Make your work the star of the show and not just a guest.

    [TEXT from the slide titled Paraphrasing: 1. Using the author’s concept but stating in your own words 2. Practice “say back” to the thing you want to quote 3. Make the thing make sense to you via careful note-taking]

    [IMAGE of person’s mouth showing audio waves going into a person’s ear]

    Paraphrasing

    Narrator: Paraphrasing can give people trouble. There isn’t a formula, like changing every 7th word to make a quote your own. When you paraphrase another’s work, try thinking about what you would say to the author to make her understand that you understand what she’s said. You can actually do that out loud or you can do it with note taking. In either case, talking back to a source will help you clarify what you understand the source to mean, but in your own words.

    [TEXT from the slide titled Paraphrasing Signals • Experts say that ________ • X found in his study that _________ • Others results have varied ________ • A 1998 study found _______ but more recent studies have concluded ______ In each case, I would be expecting a citation nearby.]

    Narrator: These kind of signals help your audience understand that someone else is about to show up.

    [TEXT from the slide titled Summarizing • Distilling a larger piece into a main idea • Helps you pull together only the pieces of the research work that you need • Is selective • Be careful not to use it to misrepresent the whole work • Believing game (Elbow, 1998)]

    Summarizing

    Narrator: If you are using a large source you clearly can’t quote a whole book in your work. But you can certainly use only the pieces you need, but be careful not to mis-use or mis-characterize an author’s meaning to make your own point. Peter Elbow’s believing game is a good way to think about summary. You pretend that whatever the author has written is something you whole-heartedly believe in as if you had written it yourself. Then you can certainly summarize it down.

    [IMAGE of a tank]

    Narrator: But your sources shouldn’t fall out of thin air or assault your reader or audience. They need to fit and they need to make sense. Don’t run over your audience with your sources, use them to inform your voice in a scholarly conversation.

    [IMAGE of an inbox piled high with paper and an outbox with only a few pieces of paper]

    Narrator: The enemy of good work is procrastination. When you put your work off, you are making a choice that might result in shortcuts later on. Don’t fall victim to the myth, “that you work best under pressure.” Mistakes, big ones, like plagiarism, can occur when students take shortcuts. Expect to write multiple drafts of your paper or practice your presentation before to get it just where you want it to be.

    [SCREENSHOT of the JMU Learning Centers website homepage]

    Narrator: Tutors at the writing and communication centers can help with this kind of work. You can find them on the first floor of the Student Success Center.

    [IMAGES of types of information: books piled in a stack, magazines, newspapers, and video screens]

    Citation Styles

    Narrator: No matter what kind of information you are using or how, you need to cite all of your sources to give the author credit for their work in your work. Citation can trip students up.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries website homepage, highlight the Cite Your Sources link]

    Narrator: The Cite your sources link on the libraries website has a variety of ways for you to get assistance with the sources that you’ve used.

    [SCREENSHOT of JMU Libraries website homepage, highlight the Ask the Library link]

    Narrator: Or you can always ask for help by clicking on the Ask-The-Library button on the libraries’ homepage.

    End of Using Information Video Transcript

  • Tool

    Information Technologies

    In this unit, the student will employ appropriate technologies to create an information-based product.
     

    Information Technologies

    This 4 minute and 7 second tutorial created by Kathy Clarke reminds us to match the appropriate technology to the appropriate assignment.

    Success in Online Learning
    This 3 minute and 6 second video focuses on learning strategies, essential technologies, and how to get technical support. Andrea Adams, Alina Clark, Juhong Christie Liu and Taylor Miller created this tutorial.

    Visual Literacy

    This 5 minute tutorial created by Jonathan Paulo discusses the real-life decision making process used when working with imagery and media.

  • Tool

    Information Ethics

    In this unit, the student will use information ethically and legally.
     

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 1): Introduction Video

    Using information responsibly is an essential part of your academic duty. In this 4:32 minute introduction created by Bethany Mickel, learn what it means to use information ethically and legally.

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 1): Introduction Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the sixth competency]

    Narrator: In this module, we’re going to talk about this general education Information Literacy learning outcome [ZOOM]: “Use information ethically and legally.”

    [IMAGE of a woman sitting on a sofa with a laptop]

    Narrator: Legally and ethically using information can be a bit of a grey area as the digital era pushes our understanding of what is new, what is borrowed, and what is stolen.

    [IMAGE of the feet of a gymnast on a balance beam]

    Narrator: There are a number of cultural, ethical, economic, legal and social issues that surround the use of information for your research. At times, all of these factors seem a bit like a balancing act.

    [IMAGE of a large street sign with the word “Ethics” on it]

    Narrator: Let’s examine the term ethics. Ethics are the moral principles that govern a person’s or group’s behavior. When someone else’s work is used, it is ethical to give credit to the content’s original creator.

    [IMAGE of a reference page]

    Narrator: How one does so is through citing sources.

    [IMAGE of a sign with the words “Stay tuned…”]

    Narrator: Source citation is the topic of another tutorial within this module—so stay tuned!

    [IMAGE of a man brainstorming on a glass wall]

    Narrator: Giving credit where credit is due is ethically the right thing to do. Consider a project that you work hard to complete. You invest a lot of time and effort into the final product. Now, consider someone else using that product without giving credit to you—the original creator.

    [IMAGE of a person writing, “I will not copy again” on a chalkboard]

    Narrator: Plagiarism is an infraction resulting from the unethical use of information, and it is considered cheating. An in-depth topic, please view the accompanying tutorial to learn more.

    [IMAGE of a professor with a complex scientific model]

    Narrator: Ethical use of information is a big deal at the University because, in addition to teaching students, research is one of the mainstays of what universities do.

    [IMAGE of writing in a foreign language]

    Narrator: Ethical research practice mandates that we play by the rules established for using information of all kinds.

    [IMAGE of statue holding the scales of justice]

    Narrator: While ethics help guide our moral compass, legally, we are also obliged to provide proper credit.

    [IMAGE of man drawing a lightbulb]

    Narrator: We must consider not only who owns the content, but also the duration of their ownership and who has the right to legally use the content in certain circumstances.

    [IMAGE of a twisting road]

    Narrator: Navigating ethical and legal use of information can be a complex issue; therefore, let’s begin by discussing intellectual property.

    [IMAGE of a human skull with wheels in the brain and the following words broken out into text boxes: paintings; songs; scientific formulae; inventions; novels; plays; poems; plans; drawings]

    Narrator: According to the World Intellectual Property Organization, intellectual property refers to ‘creations of the mind including paintings, songs, scientific formulae, inventions, novels, plays, poems, plans, and drawings.’

    [IMAGE of graphing materials]

    Narrator: Anything you have written, drawn, invented, or created is your intellectual property and is protected by copyright. Copyright law also ensures that an individual’s work is not used without their permission and/or without them receiving proper credit.

    [IMAGE of a sign with the words, “stay tuned”]

    Narrator: There are certain circumstances where you can use copyrighted material and this is considered fair use. As with many topics regarding the legal aspect of copyright law, fair use is an in-depth topic. Please stay tuned and view the accompanying tutorial.

    [IMAGE of the James Madison University Honor Code]

    Narrator: As you study at JMU, the Honor Code will provide guidance on the ethical use of information within your classes. In college, if you borrow some else’s ideas without acknowledging them, you are in violation of the Honor Code. These infractions are usually resolved through the Honor Council and professors.

    [IMAGE of a courtroom gavel]

    Narrator: In the ‘real world,’ these breaches of ethical use of information can have very real, legal consequences.

    [IMAGE of an article titled “Kolon indicted in DuPont Trade Secrets Case” with an arrow pointing to the words intellectual property]

    Narrator: It is obvious that the need for the understanding of the proper way to use information in an ethically and legally sound manner does not end upon graduation. These issues will continue to impact you beyond JMU.

    [IMAGE of a girl in the stacks of a library]

    Narrator: As future writers, artists, and inventors, you will want to receive credit for your hard work and, in turn, need to extend the same credit to others. The following tutorials will help you use information legally and ethically.

    [IMAGE of JMU Libraries’ homepage with ‘Ask the Library’ IMAGE circled in red]

    Narrator: This tutorial should have provided you with information about the importance of the ethical and legal use of information. Do you still have questions? Feel free to use the Ask the Library [ZOOM] link on the library homepage to connect with a librarian. We are here to help.

    End of Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 1): Introduction Video Transcript

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 2): Plagiarism Video

    This 6:39 minute tutorial provides you with important information related to plagiarism and offers examples of summarizing, paraphrasing, and direct quotes. Created by Bethany Mickel.

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 2): Plagiarism Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the sixth competency]

    Narrator: In this tutorial, [ZOOM to TEXT] we will build upon our understanding of the importance of ethical and legal use of information by examining the topic of plagiarism.

    [IMAGE of the JMU Honor Code]

    Narrator: At JMU, plagiarism is defined in the Honor Code as [ZOOM to TEXT] “copying information, ideas, or phrasing of another person without proper acknowledgement of the true source; writing or presenting as if it is you own information, ideas, or phrasing without proper acknowledgement of the true source.”

    [IMAGE of a university building with off-shoot TEXT of ‘teach students’ and ‘conduct research’]

    Narrator: Perhaps one of the best ways to understand plagiarism at the University is to revisit the information from the introductory tutorial regarding the dual purpose of universities—to teach students and to conduct research to develop new information and ideas.

    [IMAGE of two women talking while sitting on a park bench]

    Narrator: Research and scholarship can be thought of as an on-going building process or a conversation. An author is speaking to you about their ideas, you are “listening” and may “repeat back” what you “hear.”

    [IMAGE of different colors of blocks stacked on top of one another]

    Narrator: Each new idea is built upon a previous idea.

    [IMAGE a microphone on a podium and an IMAGE of a young man working on a laptop and an IMAGE of a film reel]

    Narrator: Whether you are giving a speech, writing a paper, or producing a movie—when you use a source, you cite it.

    [IMAGE of Tragedy and Comedy theatre masks]

    Narrator: The same is also true of the source material. It might be a quote from a play, a journal article, or a work of art—if you use some else’s work—you must give attribution.

    [IMAGE of a lion and TEXT ‘Lions are apex and keystone predators’ and IMAGE of box with arrow with TEXT common knowledge for a zoologist]

    Narrator: There are times when you might encounter information that is considered ‘common knowledge.’ In various fields of study, there is information that experts consider commonly known.

    [IMAGE of a lion with two break-out boxes of TEXT]

    Narrator: While it might be tempting to omit citing this information, it is important to ask yourself two questions:

    [ZOOM to TEXT] Did I know this information before taking this course? [ZOOM OUT]

    [ZOOM to TEXT] Did the information or idea come from my own brain? [ZOOM OUT]

    [IMAGE of two break-out boxes with TEXT ‘Did I know this information before taking this course?’ and ‘Did the information or idea come from my own brain?’ and the TEXT ‘No’ in red with an IMAGE of a black arrow pointing to the TEXT ‘Cite Your Source’ in green]

    Narrator: If your response to either of these questions is NO, then it is essential that you cite the source of information.

    [IMAGE of the U.S. Constitution on the left and IMAGE of William Shakespeare on the right]

    Narrator: A paper comprised mostly of direct quotes is not a good one; however, you should quote when you can’t communicate the ideas more effectively than the original author did OR when you are working with an important text—we don’t paraphrase the Constitution or Shakespeare, for example.

    [IMAGE of a close-up of a woman’s hand writing on paper with a pencil]

    Narrator: In other words, you demonstrate your understanding of a source when you commit to putting it into your own words. Once way to do so is to think about having a conversation with the author.

    [IMAGE of three break-out boxes of TEXT on the left side indicating: ‘Did I simply change a few words?’ ‘Did I use synonyms for the author’s original words?’ and ‘Did I change the original sentence structure while keeping the author’s original words?’ and IMAGE of a blue question mark on the right side]

    Narrator: Whatever method you use to incorporate source material—all require proper citation and a careful examination of the following questions.

    [ZOOM to TEXT] Did I simply change a few words? [ZOOM OUT]

    [ZOOM to TEXT] Did I use synonyms for the author’s original words? [ZOOM OUT]

    [ZOOM to TEXT] Did I change the original sentence structure while keeping the author’s original words? [ZOOM OUT]

    [IMAGE of three break-out boxes of TEXT on the left side indicating: ‘Did I simply change a few words?’ ‘Did I use synonyms for the author’s original words?’ and ‘Did I change the original sentence structure while keeping the author’s original words?’ and TEXT of ‘Yes’ in red in the middle of the page and TEXT of ‘Plagiarizing’ in green on the right side]

    Narrator: If your response to any of these questions is yes, then it is plagiarizing NOT paraphrasing.

    [IMAGE of open books stacked on top of one another on a table]

    Narrator: When properly used, paraphrasing is a fine way to use another person’s ideas to support your writing; however, it is still essential that you attribute those ideas to that author and cite the source. Remember, this pertains to all source material.

    [TEXT ‘Original Passage’ in purple at top of page and TEXT ‘Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of sources materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.’]

    Narrator: Let’s look at this example from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab. Take a moment and read through the original passage. You may wish to pause this tutorial while you do so.

    [TEXT ‘Plagiarized Passage’ in purple at top of page and TEXT ‘Student often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.’]

    Narrator: Now, let’s look at an example of a plagiarized version of this passage. Once again, you may wish to pause the tutorial while you read.

    [TEXT ‘Original Passage’ in purple at top of page and TEXT ‘Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of sources materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.’ AND TEXT ‘Plagiarized Passage’ in purple underneath and TEXT ‘Student often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.’]

    Narrator: When we re-examine the original passage, we can see that the author of the plagiarized version simply re-arranged the sentence structure and used different synonyms. Pause the recording while you compare the two.

    [TEXT ‘Correctly Paraphrased Passage in purple at top of page and TEXT ‘In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).’ ]

    Narrator: Next, let’s look at an example of a legitimate paraphrase of the original passage. Please pause this tutorial while you do so.

    [TEXT ‘Original Passage’ in purple at top of page and TEXT ‘Students frequently overuse direct quotations in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of sources materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.’ AND TEXT ‘Correctly Paraphrased Passage’ in purple underneath and TEXT ‘In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).’]

    Narrator: This student takes the original passage and states it in his own words while making sure to credit the original author. This is proper paraphrasing.

    [IMAGE of smiling man resting his arms on top of a stack of books]

    Narrator: A good way to check to see if you are paraphrasing properly is to close your book and write down the material that you recall in your own words or talk back to your source.

    [IMAGE of Turnitin logo]

    Narrator: At JMU, instructors may opt to have you submit your work through Turnitin. Once submitted, Turnitin will check your work for originality against its vast data base (roughly 45 billion pages—and growing) of digital content that includes archived material and content that is no longer available—as well as student submissions, professional and academic journals, and publications.

    [IMAGE of the following books: The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism; Plagiarism: Alchemy and Remedy in Higher Education; Plagiarism: A How-Not-To Guide for Students; Stop Plagiarism: A Guide to Understanding and Prevention]

    Narrator: The JMU libraries have excellent reference guides related to plagiarism. Educate yourself. Ultimately, it is your job to be a responsible and ethical member of the academic community.

    [IMAGE of JMU’s University Writing Center website]

    Narrator: The JMU University Writing Center is another excellent resource for help with attribution and paraphrasing.

    [TEXT ‘What’s Next?’]

    Narrator: The next tutorial relates to citation and will help clarify the different methods and formats.

    [ZOOM to image of librarians and ‘Ask the Library’ link circled in red]

    Narrator: This tutorial should have provided you with information about plagiarism. Do you still have questions? Feel free to use the Ask the Library [ZOOM to image of librarians and ‘Ask the Library’ link circled in red] link on the library homepage to connect with a librarian. We are here to help. Be sure to view the accompanying tutorial for more information on the citation.

    End of Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 2): Plagiarism Video Transcript

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 3): Citation Video

    Crediting your sources is critical. Learn about proper citation in this 7:12 minute tutorial created by Bethany Mickel.

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 3): Citation Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the sixth competency]

    Narrator: In this tutorial, [ZOOM TO TEXT] we will build upon our understanding of the importance of ethical and legal use of information by examining the topic of citation.

    Narrator: Citation—which is providing in-text or parenthetical and bibliographic credit—is an essential component of being an ethical scholar.

    Narrator: Let’s begin by examining WHY we cite sources. If you recall, we previously discussed how research and scholarship is an on-going building process or conversation. Academic writing is built on the work of others and those individuals deserve credit for their hard work and research.

    Narrator: Citations serve three main roles in scholarly work. Let’s take a closer look…First, citations allow you to show that your research and work is built upon solid research that was conducted by others. It lends credibility to your work. In this manner, you are adding your contributions to a larger body of scholarship.

    Narrator: Secondly, citations allow you to specifically indicate which ideas were taken from others and from whom those ideas were taken. Like an actor accepting an award and thanking those who helped him along the way, citations are the way that you—as a scholar—give credit to the researchers that assisted your writing.

    Narrator: Thirdly, an important part of scholarship is to question and clarify what is read. When you cite your sources, you are allowing the reader the opportunity to investigate the ideas on which the argument was built.

    Narrator: As we learned in the previous tutorial, failure to cite information that is not common knowledge is an act of plagiarism and is academically unsound.

    Narrator: Now that we know WHY we need to cite our sources, let’s delve a bit deeper into WHAT needs to be cited. We touched briefly on this content in the last tutorial; however, it is essential that you cite all of the following:

    • Direct quotes—including entire sentences or partial phrases
    • Paraphrases or summarized material
    • Words that or terms that are unique to the author’s research, theories, or ideas
    • Use of an author’s argument or process of thinking
    • Historical, statistical, or scientific facts that are not common knowledge
    • Graphs, drawings, or other visual displays of data
    • Photographs or other visual images
    • Studies or articles that you reference within your work

    Narrator: As we discovered in the previous tutorial, there are some pieces of information that you do not need to cite including:

    • Popular sayings or proverbs such as, ‘a stich in time saves nine.’
    • Well known quotations like, ‘I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.’
    • Common knowledge including, ‘Thomas Edison invented the first electric light bulb. AND Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun.’

    Narrator: Citations take place both IN the work itself and at the end. When you cite a source within your work, it is called parenthetical OR in-text citation since you are placing your citation within parenthesis within the actual text. Different forms of citation styles dictate different rules; however, let’s take a look at this example that is formatted in APA style [insert example]. How you use the information you are citing will dictate where your parenthetical citation will be placed. Don’t worry! Each citation style has manuals available for reference—we will get to those later.

    Narrator: An alternative to in-text citation is the use of footnotes. Unlike parenthetical citation, footnotes provide the source of information at the bottom of the page. The Chicago citation format—commonly used in historical research—is demonstrated here.

    Narrator: You also need to provide a full citation at the end of your work, as well. These pages serve a dual purpose—to give full credit to the author or authors of work you referenced AND to offer fellow researches a ‘breadcrumb trail’ to follow if they wish to go back and look further at one of the sources.

    Narrator: This sample bibliographic citation is in APA style; however, you can see that the author’s name is listed, the date of publication is included, the title of the book or journal is noted, and the publisher and city of publication is specified. As with parenthetical citations, the format will change depending on the type of citation style you use. Let’s take a closer look…

    Narrator: A common question we hear is ‘why are there so many different citation styles?’ Different styles of citations have developed to address the unique needs of different disciplines. It is always important to check with your professor to see which style he or she requires. As you move forth in your selected major, you will become much more familiar with that field of study’s preferred style. Let’s take a brief look at some of the most common citation styles…

    Narrator: Modern Language Association or MLA style is used primarily in the humanities since it is well-suited for literature and archival sources.

    Narrator: American Psychological Association or APA style is used in the social sciences since it is constructed well for quantitative studies and analysis.

    Narrator: Chicago Manual of Style or simply Chicago is a style that is also used in the humanities and uses a system of footnote and endnote citations.

    Narrator: While these are a sampling of citation styles, they are certainly not the only ones. Once again, be sure to check with your professor for his or her preferred style. As your research skills increase, your proficiency with citing sources will increase; however, with the abundance of information sources including journal articles, books, media, and even lectures, it is essential that you keep a copy of the required style manual nearby.

    Narrator: You may choose to purchase a copy or use one of the reference guides available in JMU’s libraries. These are located with the reference materials and can be used while you are in the library.

    Narrator: Another resource at your fingertips is found right within the libraries’ webpage. CheckCite allows you to pick the type of end product where your citations will appear, select the style in which you wish to cite, and choose the source type. After you make your selections and click ‘Go,’…

    Narrator: …you will be taken to a screen similar to the one shown above where you can scroll through the results to see how you should cite your selected source.

    Narrator: The JMU University Writing Center is another excellent resource for help with citation formatting.

    [TEXT ‘What’s Next?’]

    Narrator: Coming up next, we will be examining the topic of ‘fair use.’ Please make sure to view the next tutorial.

    [ZOOM to image of librarians and ‘Ask the Library’ link circled in red]

    Narrator: This tutorial should have provided you with information about citing sources. Do you still have questions? Feel free to use the Ask the Library [ZOOM to image of librarians and ‘Ask the Library’ link circled in red] link on the library homepage to connect with a librarian. We are here to help.

    End of Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 3): Citation Video Transcript

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 4): Fair Use Video

    In this tutorial, explore the topic of fair use and how it pertains to you as a student. This tutorial was a collaborative effort.

    Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 4): Fair Use Video Transcript

    [IMAGE of tools in the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit]

    Narrator: Welcome back to the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit.

    [IMAGE of the Information Literacy learning objectives, focusing on the sixth competency]

    Narrator: In this tutorial, [ZOOM TO TEXT] we will build upon our understanding of the importance of ethical and legal use of information by examining the topic of fair use.

    [IMAGE of Muhammad Ali]

    Narrator: Consider the following case. In the mid-90s, the makers of a movie biography of Muhammad Ali, who is considered to be one of the greatest heavyweight boxers, used a 41 second clip from a boxing match featuring Ali. The footage was owned by another company and the biography producers were taken to court since they failed to ask permission to use the clip. The verdict was that use of the clip was permissible under the guidelines of fair use since only a small portion appeared and the purpose of the biography was informational.

    [IMAGE of the main characters from the Harry Potter film sitting at a table]

    Narrator: Now, think about the following involving the Harry Potter franchise. An independent author created a Harry Potter encyclopedia and claimed that doing so was fair use since it only compiled the author J.K. Rowling’s original terms and lexicons and put it in one book. The encyclopedia was deemed to NOT be fair use since larger portions of Rowling’s text was taken—verbatim—from her books.

    [TEXT of the word Copyright with a listing of the works protected underneath including: plays, movies, CD-ROMS, video games, videos, plays, paintings, sheet music, recorded music performances, novels, software code, sculptures, photographs, choreography, and architectural designs]

    Narrator: Before we can fully discuss fair use, we must understand what copyright ‘is.’ Title 17 of the United States Code provides copyright protection for works including poetry, movies, CD-ROMs, video games, videos, plays, paintings, sheet music, recorded music performances, novels, software code, sculptures, photographs, choreography and architectural designs.

    [IMAGE a woman standing in front of a piece of artwork in a gallery]

    Narrator: In order to qualify for copyright protection, a work must be in a fixed, tangible medium of expression. In other words, the work must exist physically for some period of time—even if it is brief.

    [IMAGE of tall buildings mirrored on a smaller scale]

    Narrator: Now that we understand what copyright is, let’s take a closer look at the concept of fair use. For the purposes of scholarship, Fair use, loosely defined, is the reproduction of copyrighted material done for a limited and “transformative” purpose, such as to comment upon or critique copyrighted work.

    [IMAGE of man reading a pamphlet entitled “Lectures and Classes for Teachers”]

    Narrator: Fair use can also extend to the limited use of copyrighted material in teaching, or the creation of original work that includes earlier, copyrighted material, in order to parody that earlier work. Such uses can be done without permission from the copyright owner.

    [IMAGE of a butterfly emerging from a cocoon]

    Narrator: In order for us to further understand, let’s discuss what “transformative” use is. Many millions of dollars in legal fees have been spent as lawyers, courts, and content owners have attempted to define what constitutes “transformative” work.

    [IMAGE of legal documents in binders]

    Narrator: Title 17 does not provide a narrow definition of fair use because the legislators who created the fair use exception in the Copyright Act of 1976 did not choose to strictly limit the definition. Very much like the idea of ‘free speech,’ these lawmakers wanted to leave open the possibility for interpretation of meaning.

    [IMAGE of recording studio mixing equipment]

    Narrator: In 1994 the United States Supreme Court handed down a judgment that helps us better understand the meaning of the term “transformative” in the context of fair use. The case concerned the rap group “2 Live Crew,” which released a record using some lines from an existing song called “Pretty Woman.” A company named NOLO, which specializes in publishing legal guides, provides the following analysis in light of the 2 Live Crew decision:

    [TEXT of the word Transformative with two arrows—each pointing to one of the following: ‘Has the material you have taken from the original work been transformed by adding NEW expression and meaning?’ AND ‘Was value added to the original by creating new information, new aesthetics, new insights, and understanding?’]

    [TEXT of the words Fair Use with two arrows—each pointing to one of the following: ‘Comments & Criticism’ AND ‘Parody’]

    Narrator: With this in mind, we can now explore two categories of fair use: commentary and criticism OR parody.

    [IMAGE of man writing in a notebook]

    Narrator: Let’s explore the first category—commentary and criticism. Consider that you are a reporter for JMU’s student-run newspaper The Breeze and that you are reviewing a new book. According to fair use, you are allowed to quote a few lines from the book in your review. The rationale is that the greater public would benefit from your review…and that your review is supported by the inclusion of some of the copyrighted material.

    [IMAGE of up-close of a person singing into a microphone]

    Narrator: The second category applies to fair use in parodies. A parody, by definition, is a work that ridicules or makes fun of another work by using comedy. One of the most popular parody artists is the singer Weird Al Yankovic. Yankovic playfully parodied work from such bands and singers as Aerosmith, The Beatles, Michael Jackson, The Rolling Stones, and U2. Since parodies require significant ‘taking’ from the original work, judges have allowed for extensive use of the original work.

    [TEXT of the words Fair Use Factors with the following statements listed underneath: ‘The purpose and character of your use,’ ‘The nature of the copyrighted work,’ ‘The amount and sustainability of the portion taken,’ ‘The effect of the use upon the potential market’]

    Narrator: There are four key factors that must be considered when trying to determine whether or not something is considered fair use:

    • The purpose and character of your use
    • The nature of the copyrighted work
    • The amount and sustainability of the portion taken
    • The effect of the use upon the potential market

    [IMAGE of a classroom]

    Narrator: We’ll briefly explore each of these beginning with “the purpose and character of your use.” Non-profit, educational purpose use of copyrighted material is generally favored over commercial use. The fair use statute even breaks down acceptable activities—all of which are components of education including: criticism; comment; news reporting; teaching; scholarship; or research. Be careful, however, just because you are in an educational setting, you are not immune to fair use restrictions. Your use must meet the requirements of each of the four key factors.

    [IMAGE of sculpture with a covering over half of the face]

    Narrator: Favor is also given to transformative work—or work that is not just a reproduction of something already existing. Examples of this would include integrating a famous quote into a paper, or using portions of a song for comment, criticism, or further exploration of a topic.

    [IMAGE of an up-close view of a hand writing in a journal]

    Narrator: Another factor is the nature of the copyrighted work. Let’s consider the difference between quoting portions of an author’s written work and quoting parts of an unpublished manuscript or letter. The courts reason that the copyright owners should have the right to determine the circumstances of first publication; therefore, while it might be acceptable to quote limited parts of a written work, it is often more difficult to apply the doctrine of fair use to the reproduction of unpublished material.

    [IMAGE of a stack of fiction books]

    Narrator: In addition, copyright protection is often granted more broadly to nonfictional as opposed to fictional works as fiction is deemed ‘creative work,’ and—by nature—more closely protected. The same applies to art, music, poetry, films, and other creative works. This does not mean that you are unable to use these resources in your own, original work; however, they are more closely protected; therefore, it is essential that you know whether or not you are in compliance with the following factor…

    [IMAGE of a set of measuring cups]

    Narrator: The amount and sustainability of the portion taken is critical. Once again, the legal system does not specify an exact limit on what is “too much;” however a good guiding principle tends to be—the less you use, the better chance you will be in compliance of fair use. Another key element to examine is whether or not you are taking the “heart of the work.”

    [IMAGE of the Titanic sinking from the movie Titanic]

    Narrator: Let’s consider the following example. You wish to use a clip of the dramatic scene in Titanic where the ship is ‘transformed’ underwater from a decaying wreck to the beautiful ship she once was. Although the clip might be brief, you are using a portion that encompasses one of the most creative scenes in the movie and would not constitute fair use.

    [IMAGE of newspapers]

    Narrator: Another example might be quoting a portion of a journalist’s article that includes the “journalistic scoop.” Once again, this would not be fair use.

    [IMAGE of a large and a small dog]

    Narrator: Art and photographs are often controversial as a user needs the full image. Courts have ruled that users can use a thumbnail or low-resolution image since those would constitute a smaller, ‘lesser amount.’

    [IMAGE of a stack of $100 bills]

    Narrator: The final factor is the effect of the use on the potential market for or value of the work. Money and income become a big issue with this consideration.

    [IMAGE of person carving a piece of wood]

    Narrator: In the court case, Rogers vs Koons, an artist used a copyrighted photograph without permission as a basis for making wood sculptures. The artist subsequently earned several hundred thousand dollars selling the sculptures. The photographer sued and the court agreed that the artist violated fair use. It did not matter whether or not the photographer would ever make a sculpture himself; the image was his and the artist used it without permission.

    [TEXT of the words Fair Use Factors with the following statements listed underneath: ‘The purpose and character of your use,’ ‘The nature of the copyrighted work,’ ‘The amount and sustainability of the portion taken,’ ‘The effect of the use upon the potential market’]

    Narrator: Once again, determining fair use requires that all of these factors be carefully considered. As a scholar, it is your responsibility to understand that—while there is some educational purpose protection—fair use is a very real issue.

    [IMAGE of the library homepage with the Ask the Library portion circled in red]

    Narrator: This tutorial should have provided you with information about fair use. Do you still have questions? Feel free to use the Ask the Library link [ZOOM to image of librarians and ‘Ask the Library’ link circled in red]on the library homepage to connect with a librarian. We are here to help.

    [IMAGE of the exterior of the Assessment & Testing Center in the basement of Ashby Residence Hall with the TEXT underneath: ‘The Assessment & Testing Center is located in the basement of the Ashby Residence Hall on the Quad. The entrance can be found at ground level to the right of the main steps.]

    Narrator: Now that you have completed the MRE Toolkit tutorials, it is important that you take the MREST. The MREST is a proctored test and must be taken in the Assessment and Testing Center located in the basement of Ashby Residence Hall on the Quad. The test is administered during lab hours.

    [IMAGE of the library homepage with the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit portion circled in red]

    Narrator: Even after you have taken the MREST, please feel free to come back often to review the material found within the Madison Research Essentials Toolkit. [ZOOM to the ‘Madison Research Essentials Toolkit’ circled in red]

    End of Ethical and Legal Use of Information (Part 4): Fair Use Video Transcript