A Guide to

W. E. Long & Sons General Store Collection, 1865-1971

Collection Number SC 5044

 

Compiled by: Ali Kolleda, Summer Bork, and Jacob Houser, November 2012

Descriptive Summary

Repository: Special Collections, Carrier Library, James Madison University

Title: W. E. Long & Sons General Store Collection, 1865-1971

Collection No.: SC 5044

Creator: William E. Long

Extent: 7 boxes, 25 folders, 348 ledgers, 3.25 linear feet

Language: English

Abstract: The W.E. Long & Sons General Store Collection, 1865-1971, consists of seven boxes containing 1014 items pertaining to the business transacted at W. E. Long & Sons General Store.

Administrative Information

Access Restrictions: Collection is open for research.

Use Restrictions: The copyright interests in this collection have been transferred to the James Madison University Special Collection Library. For more information, contact the Special Collections Library Reference Desk (library-special@jmu.edu).

Preferred Citation: [item] W.E. Long & Sons General Store Collection, 1865-1971, SC 5044, Special Collections, Carrier Library, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA.

Acquisition Information: Collection was purchased from Ronald L. Fulk care of Dusty’s Antique Market in Mount Sidney, VA on 2008 December 18.  Another part of the collection was purchased from Rocky’s Gold & Silver on 2009 July 26 and merged with the former.These were combined with the Long's Store Collection, donated by Scott Suter on 2001 September 12, and the Mt. Clinton Post Office Records, purchased from Scott Suter on 2007 April 19.

Provenance: The records were collected during the operation of W. E. Long & Sons General Store by its various owners, including Samuel Long, William E. Long, and S. Claude Long, in order to record transactions, expenses, and profit for the store.

Biographical Content: Samuel Long was the original owner of the Long Store. He worked primarily as a farmer and dry goods merchant, running numerous stores before moving from Shenandoah County to Rockingham County in 1868. In 1880, he bought the Hopkins Upper Mill on Muddy Creek and established the Chrisman general store and post office. His son, William E. Long, was named postmaster of the Chrisman post office in 1881. Samuel Long had also established another store around 1869 in Green Mount, Virginia. William E. Long was named postmaster of the Green Mount branch in 1889, and took over operations from J.W. Mauck. In 1892, Samuel Long bought A.B. Driver & Company in Mt. Clinton, Virginia, and changed the name to S. Long and Sons. At this time, William Long was also appointed postmaster of the Mount Clinton post office. William E. Long and his brother-in-law, John B. Bowman ran the Mount Clinton branch of the store under the name Long & Bowman, until the death of Bowman in 1893. Upon the death of Samuel Long in 1897, William’s sister sold her husband’s half of the Mount Clinton store to William for $2,500. The name of the store was changed to W.E. Long & Sons once William Long’s children reached maturity. The store kept this name until it was turned over by William Long’s sons to a nephew, S. Claude Long, who renamed the store S.C. Long & Sons in 1959. It remained under his name until his retirement in 1988 when it left the family’s possession. A quick succession of owners succeeded S. Claude Long until the store was finally torn down in 1995. The Long family owned and operated the Long family store for roughly 95 years, managing to sustain a business through WWI, the Great Depression, and WWII.

 

Scope and Content: The  collection, roughly 3.25 linear feet, consists of receipts, invoices, account books, banks ledgers, postcards, and letters relating to the Long’s Store in Mount Clinton, VA from 1865 to 1971. Also included are advertisements from various companies to the owners of the Long Store.  This collection consists of six series: Invoices, Advertisements, and Correspondence, 1865-1955, Purchases and Orders, 1893-1924, and Bank Ledgers, Expenses, and Sales, 1866-1971, Long's Store Account Books,  1869-1921, Long's Records, 1877-1929, Mt. Clinton Post Office Records, 1879-1893

Series 1: Invoices, Advertisements and Correspondence, 1865-1955.

              This series contains invoices to the Long Store from other companies, showing that orders were paid for in full. Specific company invoices include:  Harrisonburg Grocery Co. Inc. Exclusively Wholesale, Merchants Grocery and Hardware Co. (Successors of  Snell Grocery and Hardware Co.), Sears, Roebuck and Co., Coca-Cola Co., National Biscuit Co. (Nabisco), and the Standard Oil Co.

              Companies also sent advertisements to the Long Store in order to try to persuade the store to buy their products. Specific company and agency advertisements include advertisements from the US Food Administration, Mishawaka Rubber and Woolen Mfg. Co., Sears, Roebuck and Co., and the Merchants Grocery and Hardware Co.

              Correspondence includes letters and envelopes addressed to the Long Store from a variety of companies. Most of the correspondence thanks the Long Store for their business, provides information about backorders, includes contract letters, and personal correspondence. Companies that sent correspondence letters include; Miller & Yager General Commission Merchants, Superior Dairy Goods Moseley & Stoddard MFG Co., Darby Manufacturing Co., and R. P. Bayley & Co Importers of China & Glass.

              All of these papers provide insight into with whom the Long Store was conducting business, and their relationships with said businesses. The papers also show the types of products that the people of Mount Clinton, VA were buying not only in everyday life, but also during the war years. The papers are organized chronologically, and they are listed below with the companies in alphabetical order, as well as the number of documents associated with each company.

              There was a group of advertisements and letters found in Box 3, which had been left in their original envelopes. The letters were taken out of the envelopes and placed in a folder for preservation. The letters were moved to Series I for convenience sake, and are all contained together in Folder 9, so they do not follow the chronological scheme of the other folders. There is also one postcard from the State Normal School of Harrisonburg, VA, which seemingly has no connection to the Long family, but was found in with the ledgers.

Series 2: Purchases and Orders, 1893-1924.

              This series contains purchases and orders in ledgers compiled during the lifetime of the Long Store. The series contains 23 ledgers in total. Some ledgers show what the people ordered from the store and others show what the Long Store purchased from other companies in order to fulfill the needs of their customers. The order ledgers show what the people wanted to buy as well as who the regular customers were. They show the relationship that the Long Store had with its customers. Once the orders were delivered and were paid for, the order was crossed out with a red “X,” indicating that the transaction was complete.

              The purchase ledgers show what the owners of the Long Store purchased in order to meet the demand of their customers. Most of these ledgers are labeled with a date, what was bought on that date, and how much the order cost. Most ledgers were not specific with what goods were bought, but were specific with the pricing. Purchases were mostly labeled as “Goods,” or “Tobacco,” showing the importance of tobacco in that it was given its own category.  Other ledgers simply state the name of the company being ordered from, rather than listing all the specific goods themselves.

Series 3: Bank Ledgers, Expenses, and Sales, 1866-1971.

              This series contains records of the expenses and sales of the Long family store, as well as ten bank ledgers. The majority are specific to the First National Bank of Harrisonburg, VA. These indicate expenses and sales of the store, including specific company or personal names to whom the store is paying off bills or from whom it is receiving payment.

              There are also three ledgers that indicate expenses of the store. The first ledger appears to be expenses organized by specific person or business.  The latter two are organized by types of goods, including groceries, tobacco, dry goods, drugs, etc.  The orders appear to be crossed out once they were acquired.

              There are two other larger ledgers in the series. The smaller of the two appears to document the weekly sales of the store. There are several other receipts and calculations relating to the profit of the store stuck in the pages of the ledger. These loose papers were left there in order to preserve original order and context. The larger of the two ledgers seems to be a system of credit from a store in Johnsonville prior to the existence of Long Family Store in Mt. Clinton, VA.  Samuel Long was known to have stores in many locations, so it seems prudent to assume it was one of his stores before Mt. Clinton. As with the previous ledger, there are calculations and a few documents of correspondence stuck in between the pages. They were likewise kept within to preserve original order.

Series 4: Long's Store Account Books, 1869-1921

              This series consists of nine books: one "road book" ostensibly from Long's Store in Green Mount, Va. (Rockingham Country); three account books and five daybooks from Long's Store in Mt. Clinton, Va. Daybooks record purchases of general household goods and merchandise, such as eggs, butter, pens, pencils, shoes, yarn, chickens, roosters, sugar, dye, matches, hats, and shovels. Account books typically record customer accounts, transactions and balances over time and do not record itemized purchases.

Series 5: Long's Store Records, 1877-1929

              This series is a collection of receipts that document the business between small town merchant W.E. Long and commission merchants such as Miller & Roller, Washington, D.C.; Acker & Long Produce, Philadelphia; Standard Oil Company; Brand Shoe Co., Roanoke; and J. J. Underhill Fruit & Vegetables, Baltimore which he supplied with butter, chicken, and eggs. Among the local merchants are; Snell Grocery, Harrisonburg; Hoge & Hutchinson, Staunton; Merchants Grocery and Hardware, Harrisonburg; L. W. Gaines, Inc., Harrisonburg; Worthington Hardware, Staunton; and National Biscuit Company, Staunton. Bills document the variety of merchandise including shoes, fabric, sugar, and coffee that Long purchased to supply his own customers. Fifteen cancelled checks from the First National Bank Harrisonburg date to 1920.

Series 6: Mt. Clinton Post Office Records, 1879-1893

              The collection consists of three record books from Mt. Clinton Post Office from 1879 through 1893. All three books are roughly the same size. However, Book One was received missing most of the front and back covers. Book Three was disassembled and boards discarded due to insect damage.

              William E. Long was a postmaster at Chrisman, Va. (1881-1887), Green Mount, Va. (1889-1893), and Mt. Clinton ,Va. (1893-1897). William's father, Samuel, established and operated general stores and post office in all three locations. Why The Mt. Clinton post Office records prior to William's tenure remained in his possession is unclear, as the items in the collection lists his predecessors as Henry Parker and James W. Rhodes.

               

Bibliography: MacAllister, Dale. “The William E. Long Family and Long’s Store.”

Contents List:

Series I: Invoices, Advertisements, and Correspondence, 1865-1955

April 1, 1865—March 31, 1899

 

Box: Folder: Items

C. L. Moor

1:1:1

Common Wealth of Virginia

1:1:2

David Taylor and Co.

1:1:1

Hellen Jatzeusteler

1:1:1

Heller Brothers and Co.

1:1:1

Jacob and Viert

1:1:2

Joseph Raish Loans

1:1:3

Long Store Ledger Page

1:1:1

Rockingham Register

1:1:1

R. P. Bayley and Co.

1:1:1

Smith, Ellet, & Co.

1:1:1

Stoneburner and Richards

1:1:1

Treasury of Rockingham County

1:1:1

Tucker and Co.

1:1:1

Wm. Devries & Co.

1:1:4

Young, Kimmell, and Diggs

1:1:1

 

December 3, 1900—November 6, 1917

 

Box: Folder: Items

Baker and Company Groceries

1:2:2

Baltimore Bargain House

1:2:4

Baltimore Oil

1:2:1

Brand Shoe Co.

1:2:3

Byers-Beery Grocery Co.

1:2:1

Chesapeake & Ohio RR

1:2:1

C. J. Rice

1:2:1

Daniel Miller Co. Dry Goods

1:2:5

Edelen Bros. Commission

1:2:4

First National Bank

1:2:1

Harrisonburg Evaporating Co.

1:2:1

Harrisonburg Grocery Co.

1:2:8

Herb Medicine Co.

1:2:1

J. G. Haldeman & Bros

1:2:2

Lynchburg Shoe Co.

1:2:1

Miscellaneous

1:2:1

Mishawaka Woolen Manufacturing Co.

1:2:3

N. K. Fairbank

1:2:1

Norfolk Western RR

1:2:1

Red C. Oil

1:2:1

R. M. Sutton Co.

1:2:3

Snell Grocery & Hardware

1:2:1

Standard Oil

1:2:2

W. A. W. Davis Corporation

1:2:1

 

February 15, 1818—September 17, 1818

 

Box: Folder: Items

American Snuff Co.

1:3:1

Baltimore Bargain House

1:3:2

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad

1:3:1

Crystal Lamps Asst.

1:3:1

Daniel Miller Co. Dry Goods

1:3:1

Harrisonburg Grocery Co.

1:3:19

J. Frank Darling Co. Inc

1:3:1

J. W. Ould Company Inc

1:3:2

Merchants Grocery & Hardware Co.

1:3:42

Red "C" Oil Manufacturing Co.

1:3:3

Snell Grocery

1:3:1

Southern Railroad Co.

1:3:1

US Food Administration

1:3:1

 

December 19, 1921—December 23, 1924                       

 

Box: Folder: Items

American Wholesale Corporation

1:4:5

B. F. Goodrich Rubber

1:4:2

Chattanooga Knitting Mills

1:4:2

City Produce Exchange

1:4:1

Daniel Miller Co. Dry Goods

1:4:1

Friedman-Shelby International Shoe

1:4:5

G. K. Andrews & Co.

1:4:2

Harrisonburg Grocery Co.

1:4:6

Imperial Ice Cream Co.

1:4:1

J. M. Snell & Co.

1:4:1

Merchants Grocery & Hardware Co.

1:4:5

National Biscuit Company

1:4:4

Sternick & Bittman Butter and Eggs

1:4:1

Westel Seed Co.

1:4:2

W. F. Berry & Son

1:4:2

 

January 5, 1925—November 25, 1927

 

Box: Folder: Items

American Wholesale Corporation

1:5:4

Arbuckle Brothers

1:5:2

Barnhart Overall Company

1:5:3

B. F. Goodrich Rubber Company

1:5:3

Chas. King & Son Co, Inc.

1:5:1

Daniel Miller Company

1:5:1

Edelen Brothers General Commission Merchants

1:5:2

Ehrmann Manufacturing Co.

1:5:1

First National Bank

1:5:3

G. K. Andrews and Co.

1:5:2

Harrisonburg Candy and Fruit Company

1:5:3

Harrisonburg Grocery Co.

1:5:1

International Shoe Company

1:5:11

J. M. Strickler

1:5:1

John W. Eshelman and Sons

1:5:3

J. W. Ould Company

1:5:8

L. W. Gaines and Company

1:5:1

Merchants Grocery and Hardware Co.

1:5:6

Mishawaka Rubber and Woolen Mfg. Co.

1:5:2

National Biscuit Company

1:5:2

Proctor and Gamble Distributing Co.

1:5:1

Richmond Hosier Mills

1:5:1

Southern Railway Company

1:5:2

Valley Supply Company

1:5:4

Virginia Cigar Company

1:5:1

Wetsel Seed Company

1:5:1

 

February 18, 1928—December 12, 1928

 

Box: Folder: Items

American Wholesale Corporation

1:6:7

Barnhart Overall Co.

1:6:4

Burke & Price Insurance

1:6:1

Daniel Miller Co. Dry Goods

1:6:2

D. M. Ferry & Co. Seedsmen

1:6:3

E. W. Ross Ensilage Cutter & Silo Co.

1:6:1

Friedman-Shelby International Shoe

1:6:1

Harrisonburg Candy & Fruit Co, Inc.

1:6:4

Harrisonburg Grocery Co.

1:6:3

Hawkins Hardware Co.

1:6:1

H. M. Baucon & Sons

1:6:1

J. M. Strickler

1:6:2

John F. Birkmeyer & Sons

1:6:1

Merchants Grocery & Hardware Co.

1:6:28

Mishawaka Rubber & Woolen Manufacturing Co.

1:6:6

National Biscuit Co.

1:6:4

R. A. Brice & Son

1:6:1

R. G. Dun & Co

1:6:1

 

January 5, 1929—November 16, 1929

 

Box: Folder: Items

C. D. Kenny Co.

1:7:1

Daniel Miller Company

1:7:1

Harlin Bro and Co.

1:7:4

Harrisonburg Candy and Fruit Company, Inc.

1:7:8

Harrisonburg Grocery Co.

1:7:3

Hawkins Hardware Co.

1:7:1

International Shoe Company

1:7:15

Merchants Grocery and Hardware Co.

1:7:15

Miscellaneous

1:7:1

Mishawaka Rubber and Woolen Mfg. Co.

1:7:2

R. A. Brice and Son

1:7:1

Sears, Roebuck and Co.

1:7:2

Southern Railway Company

1:7:1

Wm. Schlunderburg—T. J. Kurdle Co.

1:7:2

 

March 4, 1930—September 10,1955

American Wholesale Co.

1:8:5

Bentley, Shriver & Co.

1:8:1

Bob's Food Products Co., Inc.

1:8:1

Butler Brothers

1:8:3

Daniel Miller Co. Dry Goods

1:8:2

Dixie Distributing Co.

1:8:2

E. J. Branch & Sons

1:8:2

Elkton Lithia Bottling Co.

1:8:1

First National Bank

1:8:4

Friedman-Shelby International Shoe

1:8:10

Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Inc.

1:8:1

Harrisonburg Candy & Fruit Company, Inc.

1:8:8

Harrisonburg Grocery Co.

1:8:16

Harrisonburg Livestock Market Inc.

1:8:1

Hartford Fire Insurance Co.

1:8:1

Henry S. King & Sons

1:8:1

J. F. Burkholder's Speech on World Peace

1:8:3

J. S. Denton & Sons, Inc.

1:8:1

Manbeck Bread Co.

1:8:1

Merchants Grocery & Hardware Co.

1:8:44

Miscellaneous Accounting

1:8:2

M. O. Showalter & Son

1:8:1

National Biscuit Co.

1:8:1

Ort Brothers Bakery, Inc.

1:8:1

Proctor & Gamble Distributing Co.

1:8:1

Rockingham Cooperative Farm Bureau, Inc.

1:8:1

Rockingham Tractor & Equipment Co.

1:8:1

Snow King Baking Powder Co.

1:8:1

Strietman Biscuit Co.

1:8:1

Virginia Pepsi-Cola Bottling Co.

1:8:1

Wm. Schluderberg- T. J. Kurdle Co

1:8:2

 

February 1, 1882—June 24, 1911

 

Box: Folder: Items

R. P. Bayley  & Co Importers of China & Glass

1:9

Miller & Yager General Commission Merchants: invoice/envelope 2/2/1882

1:9

Miller & Yager General Commission Merchants: invoice/envelope 11/10/1882

1:9

Superior Dairy Goods Moseley & Stoddard MFG Co.: 4 ads/envelope c. 1887

1:9

George G. McClintock Commission Merchants: receipt/envelope 8/2/1892

1:9

Darby Manufacturing Co.: envelope 8/25/1892

1:9

Edelen Bros Commission Merchants: invoice/envelope 3:30/1901

1:9

State Normal School Postcard: 6/25/1911

 

 

Series II: Purchases and Orders, 1893-1924

 

Box: Folder: Items

Customer Order Ledger 1: November 1899—December 1899

2

Customer Order Ledger 2: April 1900—October 1900

2

Customer Order Ledger 3: October 1900—August 1901

2

Customer Order Ledger 4: April 1902—September 1902

2

Customer Order Ledger 5: Septermber 1902—April 1903

2

Customer Order Ledger 6: April 1903—August 1903

2

Customer Order Ledger 7: June 1904—August 1904

2

Customer Order Ledger 8: April 1907—May 1907

2

Customer Order Ledger 9: April 1909—June 1909

 

 

 

Purchase Ledger Marker "To Goods" 1: April 1893—March 1904

2

Purchase Ledger Marker "To Goods" 2: April 1904—December 1914

2

 

 

Purchase Ledger with Specific Goods Listed 1: January 1906—January 1907

2

Purchase Ledger With Specific Goods Listed 3: January 1907—January 1908

2

Purchase Ledger With Specific Goods Listed 4: January 1910—1911

2

Purchase Ledger With Specific Goods Listed 5: 1911-1913

2

Purchase Ledger With Specific Goods Listed 6: 1913—1915

2

Purchase Ledger With Specific Goods Listed 7: presumably finished in 1915

2

Purchase Ledger With Specific Goods Listed 8: 1917

2

 

 

Purchase Ledger With Company Names Listed 1: April 1917—December 1919

2

Purchase Ledger With Company Names Listed 2: July 1921—June 1922

2

Purchase Ledger With Company Names Listed 3: August 1922—July 1923

2

Purchase Ledger With Company Names Listed 4: August 1923—March 1924

2

 

Series III Bank Ledgers, Expenses, and Sales, 1866- 1971

 

Box: Folder: Items

Bank Ledger 1: April 1903—August 1905

3

Bank Ledger 2: September 1905—January 1908

3

Bank Ledger 3: January 1908—March 1910

3

Bank Ledger 4: June 1912—August 1914

3

Bank Ledger 5: August 1913—August 1914

3

Bank Ledger 6: August 1914—February 1915

3

Bank Ledger 7: February 1915—December 1915

3

Bank Ledger 8: February 1918—June 1921

3

Bank Ledger 9: July 1926—June 1927

3

Bank Ledger 10: July 1932—March 1935

3

 

 

Expense Ledger 1: April 1893—October 1900

3

Expense Ledger (Organized by Type of Good) 2: date unknown

3

Expense Ledger (Organized by Type of Good) 3: 1901

3

 

 

Weekly Sales (Large Ledger): January 1919—December 1971

3

Johnsonville Ledger: October 1866—March 1868

3

 

Series IV: Long's Stores Account Books, 1869- 1921

 

Box: Folder: Item

Book One: Daybook, December 1869—January 1871

4:4

Book Four: Daybook, November 1902—September 1903

4:5

Book Five: Daybook, November 1905—May 1906

5:1

Book Six: Daybook, June 1917—December 1917

5:2

Book Eight: Daybook, May 1921—November 1921

5:3

Book Nine: Account Book, Undated

5:4

Book Seven: Account Book, August 1918-September 1921

6:1

Book Three: Daybook, January 1901—August 1901

6:2

Book Two: Account Book, August 1900—July 1903

6:3

 

Series V: Long's Store Records, 1877-1929

 

Box: Folder: Item

Bills and Receipts, 1877—1894

7:1

Bills and Receipts, 1895

7:2

Bills and Receipts, 1896—1899

7:3

Bills and Receipts, 1900—1922

7:4

Bills and Receipts, 1923

7:5

Bills and Receipts, 1924-1929

7:6

Price Lists, 1880-1924

7:7

 

Series VI: Mt. Clinton Post Office Records, 1879-1893            

 

Box: Folder: Item

Book One: September 1879—March 1883

4:1

Book Two: April 1883—March 1888

4:2

Book Three: October 1884—December 1893

4:3