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Citing Sources Plagiarism When to Cite Sources Style Manuals Fair Use Quiz
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When to Cite Sources



Research Papers and Other Writing Projects

When citing sources in research papers, use a conventional style, such as APA, MLA, Chicago, or Turabian. Each style specifies a uniform way of citing sources that will:

  1. give an orderly appearance to your bibliography or reference list
  2. provide all the essential elements of information that a reader will need to locate the source.
Image from Microsoft Clip Art


When giving a speech, cite your sources orally. Provide enough information to allow an audience member to locate the source. Typically, you should include:

  • author or creator
  • title of the work
  • date

Additionally, consider offering a brief statement about your source’s credibility by stating the source’s connection to the topic.

Oral Citations (examples) by JMU School of Communication Studies

PowerPoint photo
Photo by Johlene Hess, JMU Libraries, 2005


PowerPoint Presentations

When you use PowerPoint, be sure to cite sources for any direct quotations or images appearing on a slide. Write the information in a small font in a textbox at the bottom of the slide or under the image. 

If you use a graphic from the Internet, you should cite it, too, unless it is in the public domain (freeware).

Your instructor may also expect you to include a bibliography slide at the end of your slideshow. Your bibliography should not take the place of appropriate oral citations offered during your presentation.

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