Union General Orders No. 190, 1863
Repository: Special Collections, Carrier Library, James Madison University
Title: Union General Orders No. 190, 1863
Collection No.: SC 0017
Creator: Townsend, Edward D., 1817-1893
Extent: 1 legal folder; .08 cubic feet
Abstract: Union General Orders No. 190, dated June 25, 1863, is a printed Union Army directive issued during the American Civil War. This directive was ordered by the Union Assistant Adjutant General Edward D. Townsend, and called for all new recruits to be paid a sum of $402.00 and for those who re-enlisted to be paid $400.00.
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Preferred Citation: [identification of item], [box #, folder #], Union General Orders No. 190, 1863, SC 0017, Special Collections, Carrier Library, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA.
Acquisition Information: James Madison University Special Collections Library acquired this document at auction
from Cohasco, Inc in January 2016.
Edward D. Townsend was born in Boston in 1817. He graduated West Point in 1837, served in the Second Seminole War (Florida War), and eventually reached the rank of captain in 1848. Townsend served throughout the war in the Adjutant Generals office. Townsend would go on after the war to achieve the rank of brigadier general in 1869. He died in Washington, DC in 1893.
At the time General Orders No. 190 was issued in June of 1863, the Union war effort was in a precarious position. The important Union victory at Antietam in the fall of 1862 had been followed by little progress in defeating Confederate forces in Virginia. To maintain a steady income of new recruits, the United States Congress passed the Enrollment Act which was enacted on March 3, 1863. This act required every male citizen and immigrants who had filed for citizenship between ages twenty and forty-five to enroll. The Enrollment Act proved to be unpopular, and the issuing of General Order No.190 was intended to aid in recruiting for the Regular Army. The order offered bounties for enlistments for up to five years of service, detailing a $2 premium on enlistment, plus $13 advance pay, and almost $400 bounty to new soldiers, spread out at $50 per year. Three weeks after the issuing of these new premiums and expectations of the war to continue until 1868, riots broke out in New York over the demand for new soldiers to fight in the war, known as the New York Draft Riots.
Scope and Content:
General Order No. 190, 1863, consists of a printed copy of the order. The order directed the parameters and amounts for the pay of new recruits into the Union Regular Army. It goes on to detail the periods in which recruits were to be paid their bounties for enlisting throughout their terms of service, extending to the expiration of their service after four years with a maximum total of $402. The document is signed, in type, by Assistant Adjutant General E. D. Townsend.
The left edge of the sheet is irregular where it was removed from a binding.
One printed document housed in a legal folder.
"Gen. Edward D. Townsend Obituary." The New York Times (New York), May 12, 1893. Accessed
November 10, 2016. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D01E5DB1031E033A25751C1A9639C94629ED7CF.
Box : Folder
|Union General Orders No. 190, 1863||
Compiled by: Dillon Thomas, October 2016