Shenandoah Valley Oral History Project, 2005-2009

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Summary Information

Repository:
Special Collections, Carrier Library, James Madison University
Title:
Shenandoah Valley Oral History Project
Collection No.:
SdArch 29
Date:
2005-2009
Extent:
3 boxes; 103 cds, .99 Cubic Feet
Language of the Material:
English
Abstract:
The Shenandoah Valley Oral History Project, 2005-2009, is comprised of audio recordings, transcripts, background papers, digital photographs and supplementary digital material related to interviews conducted by undergraduate students with Shenandoah Valley residents, primarily in Rockingham and Augusta Counties.

Preferred Citation

[identification of item], [box #: folder #] or [container #], Shenandoah Valley Oral History Project, 2005-2009, SdArch 29, Special Collections, Carrier Library, James Madison University.

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Bio/Historical Note

The Shenandoah Valley Oral History Project was initiated by Professor Daniel Kerr at James Madison University in Fall 2005 as a component of the course, HIST 339: Selected Themes in U.S. History. Students conducted and transcribed the interviews of Shenandoah Valley residents, primarily in Rockingham and Augusta Counties. From 2006-2009, Professor Daniel Kerr had students conduct oral histories in additional courses, namely HIST 339: US Environmental History and HIST 441/641: Oral History and Social Justice.

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Scope and Content

The Shenandoah Valley Oral History Project, 2005-2009, is comprised of audio recordings, transcripts, background papers, digital photographs and supplementary digital material related to interviews conducted by undergraduate students with Shenandoah Valley residents, primarily in Rockingham and Augusta Counties.

Each interview typically consists of an interview guide, an interview journal/log, the transcript of the interview, the recorded interview, and, when present, images and other supplementary material. The interview guide contains questions that the interviewer would have used during the interview. The interview journal offers the interviewer's insights and experiences before, during and after the interview. The transcripts for each interview provide biographical details of the interviewee, as well as the transcription of the recorded interview.

Interviewers questioned individuals on their life history, employment, and areas of expertise. The topics covered in the interviews range widely. Topics include various businesses and institutions including Wampler Foods, Pilgrim's Pride, Western State Hospital, the Virginia State Hospital, Shenandoah National Park. Several interviews cover the poultry industry, including interviews with poultry growers, processing workers, processing managers, and people who manage by-products. Other interviews address topics such as homelessness, the prison system, veterans issues, LGBTQ issues, immigrant experiences, agriculture, and labor and civil rights activism.

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Arrangement

The collection is divided into two series, based on the time of accession. Series 1: Oral History Interviews, 2005-2007, is comprised of interviews conducted by students in Dr. Kerr's course: HIST 339: Selected Themes in U.S. History.

Series 2: Oral History Interviews, 2006-2009, is comprised of 20 interviews conducted by students in Dr. Kerr's courses, HIST 339: US Environmental History and HIST 441/641: Oral History and Social Justice.

Folders are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

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Administrative Information

Access Restrictions

Access to these oral histories is governed by a deed of gift signed by the interviewer and narrator(s). Most of the oral histories are open for use without restriction. In the instances in which the narrator did not grant permission for full online access to recordings and documents, it is noted in the record. In some instances, records are only open for use within the Special Collections Reading Room. Pseudonyms are used when requested by the narrator.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Materials were donated in two installments. The first set of 20 interviews and background materials were donated by Dr. Daniel Kerr, History Professor at James Madison University, in June of 2006. The second set of 79 interviews and background materials were donated on June 1, 2010, by Professor Daniel Kerr.

Processing Note

At the point that the first oral histories were accessioned, the audio was converted from .wav files to .mp3s to create an access copy. Transcripts and background documents were made available in digital form in html and/or pdf format. Restricted interviews and material are noted in this finding aid.

A second accession comprised of 82 cds, included the original recordings submitted by students, as well as preservation copies of the interview material, prepared by Dr. Kerr. Most of the cds included the audio recording (.mp3 and WAVE file), and a transcript, background journal, and an interview guide (.pdf and .doc). All media is labelled with the collection number, interview number, and a unique id, and is housed in the Special Collections media cabinet.

Use Restrictions

Oral histories audio and transcripts are either in the public domain or the copyright interests have been transferred to the James Madison University Special Collections Library. For more information, contact the Special Collections Library Reference Desk (library-special@jmu.edu).

All images and supplementary documents are subject to copyright and are provided for educational purposes only. They may not be downloaded, reproduced or distributed in any format without permission from the donor.

Location

Special Collections, Carrier Library, James Madison University

880 Madison DriveMSC 1704Harrisonburg, Virginia 22807library-special@jmu.eduURL: https://www.lib.jmu.edu/special/

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Related Materials

Separated Materials

Audio cds are housed in media cabinet.

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Index Terms

Genre and Form

  • oral histories (literary works)
  • transcripts

Personal Name

  • Kerr, Daniel

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Collection Inventory

Series 1: Oral History Interviews, 2005–2007

Title/Description Instances
Daniels, Greyson, interviewed by Shannon Gavin, March 15, 2006

Daniels, Greyson, interviewed by Shannon Gavin, March 15, 2006

Records Daniels's experiences serving four years in Virginia's correctional system before being transferred to the Gemeinschaft Home, a non-profit organization serving formerly incarcerated persons in Harrisonburg. Describes the events that led to Daniels's sentencing, his incarceration and his experiences in the Gemeinschaft Home program. Discusses Daniels's impressions of the strengths and weaknesses of the program and his decision to be a counselor.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 15, 2006 box 1 folder 1
Original CD, March 15, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-001
Preservation master, March 15, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-101
Farrish, John D., interviewed by Scott Burwell, December 5, 2005

Farrish, John D., interviewed by Scott Burwell, December 5, 2005

Describes the history of the Teamsters Union in the Shenandoah Valley, specifically Teamsters Local 29, which was formed in 1963. Farrish joined the union as a driver in 1975, eventually rising to the post of president of the union in 1997. Discusses general working conditions in the Shenandoah Valley and issues of race and migration. Also mentioned are union member benefits, the matter of 'right to work' and 'closed shop' states, and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, December 5, 2005 box 1 folder 2
Original CD, December 5, 2005 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-002
Preservation master, December 5, 2005 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-101
Fisher, Betty Kilby, interviewed by Carrie MacLeod, March 28, 2007

Fisher, Betty Kilby, interviewed by Carrie MacLeod, March 28, 2007

Describes Fisher's experiences as an African American student in Virginia during the early years of school desegregation in the 1950s and 1960s. Describes the policy of "massive resistance" whereby the governor of Virginia closed the public schools in an effort to avoid integration. Recalls the efforts of her father, James W. Kilby, who named Fisher as a plaintiff in the Virginia court case Betty Ann Kilby v. Warren County Board of Education, which led to the integration of Warren County High School in 1958. Concludes with a discussion of her life after graduation and her reflections on school desegregation.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 28, 2007 box 1 folder 3
Original CD, March 28, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-003
Preservation master, March 28, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-101
Johnson, Mabel, interviewed by Hayden Van Dyke, March 21, 2006

Johnson, Mabel, interviewed by Hayden Van Dyke, March 21, 2006

Describes her experience working in several poultry processing plants in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia for more than twenty years, primarily as a union steward for the United Food and Commercial Workers union (UFCW) from 1977 until her retirement in 1986. Discusses her early childhood and family life and her election to shop steward, succeeding her husband, who held the post at the time of his death in 1977. Discusses the working conditions, wages and occupational hazards in the industry during those years and her commitment to ensuring worker's rights through organized labor unions. Recalls walk out strikes at several poultry plants in the Valley during the 1970s.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 21, 2006 box 1 folder 4
Original CD, March 21, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-004
Preservation master, March 21, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-101
Layman, Allen, interviewed by Hayden Van Dyke, April 5, 2006

Layman, Allen, interviewed by Hayden Van Dyke, April 5, 2006

Records Layman's experiences as a thirty-year employee of the Western State Hospital in Staunton, Virginia. Layman was the president of the local chapter of the United Radio, Electrical and Machine Workers of America (UE), the labor union representing para-professional and housekeeping staff at the psychiatric facility. Recalls various occasions when the UE was asked to arbitrate on behalf of hospital staff members. Discusses the perceived attitudes of some hospital managers toward the classified staff, cases of alleged malfeasance by hospital management, and the overall effects on employee retention.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 5, 2006 box 1 folder 5
Original CD, April 5, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-005
Preservation master, April 5, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-101
Maul, Kris, interviewed by Joanna Lee, March 28, 2006

Maul, Kris, interviewed by Joanna Lee, March 28, 2006

Examines the impact of incarceration on a prisoner's family members. This interview records the thoughts and feelings of the eight year old son of an incarcerated person serving a sentence in the Virginia correctional system.

Restricted.

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 28, 2006 box 1 folder 6
Original CD, March 28, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-006
Preservation master, March 28, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-101
Michael, Greg, interviewed by Joanna Lee, April 23, 2006

Michael, Greg, interviewed by Joanna Lee, April 23, 2006

Discusses the experiences of a West Virginia farmer who served fourteen years in prison for selling marijuana in the 1990s. Topics include his early family life, his arrest and the events surrounding his trial and sentencing. He discusses the conditions in the federal prisons in West Virginia and Maryland in which he served his time. Relates the coping strategies he employed while incarcerated, such as teaching yoga to fellow inmates, working in the prison kitchens and writing poetry, some of which was published.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 23, 2006 box 1 folder 7
Original CD, April 23, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-007
Preservation master, April 23, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-101
Morrison, Pat, interviewed by Amy R. Larrabee, April 21, 2006

Morrison, Pat, interviewed by Amy R. Larrabee, April 21, 2006

Records an interview with Morrison, who moved to the Harrisonburg area as a child in the 1950s. Describes her early family life, school days, and other experiences growing up in the Shenandoah Valley. Discusses school integration during the 1960s, her marriage after graduation from high school, and life on a military base in Germany. Describes her work as a food service technician at Harrisonburg High School and Waterman Elementary School, and changes to the school lunch program over the years.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 21, 2006 box 1 folder 8
Original CD, April 21, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-008
Preservation master, April 21, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-102
Patterson, Julia (with Mercedes Williams), interviewed by Amy R. Larrabee, March 11, 2006

Patterson, Julia (with Mercedes Williams), interviewed by Amy R. Larrabee, March 11, 2006

Records an interview with Julia Patterson, who worked as a domestic worker in Virginia for more than sixty years. Discusses her early family life as one of seventeen siblings growing up in rural Virginia in the early decades of the 20th century. Patterson is joined by her half-sister Mercedes "Sadie" Williams at various points throughout the interview. Recalls her work picking apples in Staunton, daily life under segregation, as well as wartime rationing in the 1940s. Describes her experiences working with several families in New York, New Jersey and primarily in Virginia. Closes with a discussion of her life since her retirement at the age of 86.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 11, 2006 box 1 folder 9
Original CD, March 11, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-009
Peachey, Tom, interviewed by Carrie MacLeod, April 12, 2006  

Peachey, Tom, interviewed by Carrie MacLeod, April 12, 2006  

Records an interview with Tom Peachey, a resident of Warren County, Virginia. Describes his early family life and education. Recalls the decision by Warren County to close the public schools in an effort to avoid school desegregation in 1958. Discusses his views on integration and equal rights, as well as his secondary education and work history. Peachy worked as a missionary, a teacher and a psychologist over the course of his professional life. Closes with Peachy's reflections on how his training as a psychologist has shaped his religious beliefs and world view.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 12, 2006   box 1 folder 10
Original CD, April 12, 2006   Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-010
Preservation master, April 12, 2006   Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-102
Robinson, Monica, interviewed by Nicole Snyder, March 23, 2006  

Robinson, Monica, interviewed by Nicole Snyder, March 23, 2006  

Records an interview with Monica Robinson, a Special Education teacher and community activist who has lived in Harrisonburg, Virginia, since the mid-1970s. Describes her family life and early education, and her decision to live in the Northeast neighborhood in Harrisonburg. Discusses the impact of the R-4 project on Harrisonburg neighborhoods in the 1950s and 1960s, as described by Robinson's mother. Discusses Robinson's involvement with the local chapter of Copwatch, an all-volunteer citizen group that observes and records interactions between police officers and Harrisonburg citizens. Other topics include the federal government's "Weed and Seed" program, Harrisonburg public schools, and the Lucy Simms School.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 23, 2006   box 1 folder 11
Original CD, March 23, 2006   Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-011
Preservation master, March 23, 2006   Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-102
Shelton, Garfield, interviewed by Nicole Snyder, March 3, 2006 

Shelton, Garfield, interviewed by Nicole Snyder, March 3, 2006 

Records the experiences of Garfield Shelton, who provides a general life history from the perspective of a person living with schizophrenia in Harrisonburg, Virginia.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 3, 2006  box 1 folder 12
Original CD, March 3, 2006  Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-012
Preservation master, March 3, 2006  Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-101
Swarts, Crysta, interviewed by Heather Campbell, March 2, 2006

Swarts, Crysta, interviewed by Heather Campbell, March 2, 2006

Records an interview with Crysta Swarts, a student at James Madison University, who describes her family and social life, dating experiences over the previous five years, and the discrimination she sometimes experiences because of her bisexuality. Reflects on her religious beliefs and plans for the future.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 2, 2006 box 1 folder 13
Original CD, March 2, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-013
Original CD, March 2, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-014
Preservation master, March 2, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-101
Velazquez, Alice, interviewed by Amanda Harris, March 30, 2006  

Velazquez, Alice, interviewed by Amanda Harris, March 30, 2006  

Records the life experiences of Alice Velazquez from her childhood to her current endeavors in Harrisonburg, Virginia. She discusses her childhood, jobs she has had throughout her life, her marriage, her children, and her housing opportunities in Harrisonburg after moving from New York state.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 30, 2006   box 1 folder 14
Original CD, March 30, 2006   Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-015
Preservation master, March 30, 2006   Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-101
Wills, Travis, interviewed by Ellen K. Donnelly, April 21, 2006

Wills, Travis, interviewed by Ellen K. Donnelly, April 21, 2006

Records the life experiences of Travis Wills, a 21-year old Virginian residing in Harrisonburg. Describes his experience as the only openly gay student in a rural Virginia high school and of the difficulties faced by LGBTQ individuals in the Shenandoah Valley. Discusses his religious convictions and his thoughts on the roots of homophobia in society. Reflects on the changes that have been slowly occurring in the schools since his graduation and on Harrisonburg's LGBTQ community.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 21, 2006 box 1 folder 15
Original CD, April 21, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-016
Preservation master, April 21, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-102
JMU Professor, interviewed by Ellen Donnelly, May 1, 2006

JMU Professor, interviewed by Ellen Donnelly, May 1, 2006

This interview with a long-time faculty member at James Madison University recounts his experiences as a gay man living and working in Harrisonburg for more than 25 years. Discusses his own college years and describes the social conditions at the time for LGBTQ individuals. Reflects on his teaching experiences at JMU, his religious views, and Harrisonburg's growing LGBTQ community.

Restricted by donor.

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, May 1, 2006 box 1 folder 16
Original CD, May 1, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-017
Preservation master, May 1, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-102
"Joe," interviewed by Ellen Donnelly, March 16, 2006

"Joe," interviewed by Ellen Donnelly, March 16, 2006

Records the life experiences of "Joe," a graduate student at James Madison University, who discusses growing up and coming out in Lynchburg, Va, his family, dating, politics, equal rights, stereotypes, gay characters in media, and the issues facing the LGBTQ community. Names are kept anonymous at the request of the interviewee.

Restricted by donor.

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 16, 2006 box 1 folder 17
Original CD, March 16, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-018
Preservation master, May 1, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-102
Mr. Armstrong, interviewed by Lorraine White, April 14, 2006

Records the experiences of Mr. Armstrong, an ex-convict residing in Virginia. Describes the events leading to his arrests and convictions as a young man and his experiences while serving his sentences in various jails and penitentiaries in Virginia. Discusses the conditions he encountered while incarcerated, his family relationships, interaction with law enforcement, and his efforts to start a new life in the years since his release. Includes comments by one of Armstrong's siblings regarding the effects of being related to an incarcerated person, especially in a small, rural community.

For Special Collections Reading Room use only.

Conditions Governing Use:

The copyright interests in this collection have been transferred to the James Madison University Special Collections Library. For more information, contact the Special Collections Library Reference Desk (library-special@jmu.edu).

Transcript and supporting documents, April 14, 2006 box 1 folder 18
Original CD, April 14, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-019
Preservation master, April 14, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-103
Miss Hughes, interviewed by Heather Campbell, April 14, 2006

Records an interview with Hughes, a student at James Madison University, who describes her family and social life and the impact of her sexual identity on those relationships. Discusses her dating experiences with men and women over the previous six years and the discrimination she sometimes experiences regarding her bisexuality. Reflects on her religious beliefs, the positive aspects of her life and her plans for the future.

For Special Collections Reading Room use only.

Conditions Governing Use:

The copyright interests in this collection have been transferred to the James Madison University Special Collections Library. For more information, contact the Special Collections Library Reference Desk (library-special@jmu.edu).

Transcript and supporting documents, April 14, 2006 box 1 folder 19
Original CD, April 14, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-020
Preservation master, April 14, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-103
Mr Scott, interviewed by Lorraine White, April 9, 2006

Records the experiences of Mr. Scott, an ex-convict residing in Virginia. Describes the events leading to his arrests and trial and his experiences while serving his sentences in various jails and penitentiaries in Virginia. Discusses the conditions he encountered while incarcerated, his family relationships and his efforts to start a new life in the years since his release.

For Special Collections Reading Room use only.

Conditions Governing Use:

The copyright interests in this collection have been transferred to the James Madison University Special Collections Library. For more information, contact the Special Collections Library Reference Desk (library-special@jmu.edu).

Transcript and supporting documents, April 9, 2006 box 1 folder 20
Original CD, April 9, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-100
Preservation master, April 9, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-103

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Series 2: Oral History Interviews, 2006–2009

Title/Description Instances
Al Saadun, Nasser, interviewed by Dan Brennan, April 9, 2009

Records an interview with Nasser Abdulsalam Al Saadun of Harrisonburg, Virginia, who speaks about his experience coming to the Shenandoah Valley as a refugee from Iraq. Al Saadun discusses his work as an interpreter for the British and US armies and the events causing him to seek refugee status in the United States. He talks about growing up in Basra, the challenges he and his family experience as refugees in Harrisonburg, the experiences of refugees more generally, and his work with the Islamic Center of Shenandoah.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Original CD, April 9, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA029-CD-021 4 9
Preservation master, April 9, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA029-CD-096
Transcript and supporting documents, April 9, 2009 box 1 folder 21
Allen, Robert, interviewed by Patrick Callahan, December 1, 2008

Robert Allen, a civil engineer with over 25 years of experience, discusses the environmental reclamation aspect of coal mining in Southwest Virginia, including Lee County, Dickenson, Wise and Buchanan Counties. He describes the coal industry with emphasis on union activities, environmental regulations, labor mechanization, community responses to coal mining, and the future of fossil fuels.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, December 1, 2008 box 1 folder 22
Original CD, December 1, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-022
Alvarado, Juan, interviewed by Terrence Haliburton, April 9, 2007

Juan Alvarado discusses his work as a forklift driver at a poultry plant in Harrisonburg, Virginia. He describes his early life, growing up on a farm Queretaro, Mexico, his day-to-day work at the poultry plant, and his plans for the future.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 9, 2007 box 1 folder 23
Original CD, April 9, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-023
Preservation master, April 9, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-095
Anderson, Daniel, interviewed by Senay Gebremedhin, April 23, 2009

Records an interview with Daniel Anderson of Harrisonburg, Virginia, who discusses his life experiences. Topics include Child Protective Services (CPS) and foster care; mental health services, including The Barry Robinson Center, in Norfolk, Virginia; epilepsy, health care and Medicaid; the Harrisonburg-Rockingham Community Service Board (CSB) and Summit House; Our Community Place (OCP), an organization in Harrisonburg; and relationships with members of his family.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 23, 2009 box 1 folder 24
Original CD, April 23, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-024
Preservation master, April 23, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-093
Anonymous Female, interviewed by Tiffany Cole, March 6, 2009

Records an interview with an unnamed narrator who resides in Harrisonburg, Virginia. She discusses her life, including her experiences with homelessness. She describes her childhood, social services in Harrisonburg, Virginia, stereotypes and misconsceptions of people who are experiencing homelessness, and time she spent in the Mercy House, a family-focused homeless shelter in Harrisonburg, Virginia. She also discusses her current work, and her hopes for her children and step-children.

Restricted by donor.

Conditions Governing Use:

The copyright interests in this collection have been transferred to the James Madison University Special Collections Library. For more information, contact the Special Collections Library Reference Desk (library-special@jmu.edu).

Transcript and supporting documents, March 6, 2009 box 1 folder 25
Original CD, March 6, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-025
Preservation master, March 6, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA029-CD-099
Anonymous Male, interviewed by Tim Van Schaich, March 7, 2007

Records an interview with an unnamed narrator, who owns and operates a multi-generational turkey farm in Rockingham County. He discusses various poultry breeds, including Nicholas and British turkeys; poultry feed and nutrition; changes in tactics of raising turkeys over time; predators; tunnel and static ventilation systems; the impact of automation on turkey growing; poultry diseases and disease prevention; various types of structures for confining turkeys; the FDA; the impact of noise on turkey health; the impact of heat and cold on turkeys; dealing with dead an decomposing birds; fuel and grain costs; the ethanol movement; and fertilizers. He describes his work for Wampler in the 1950s, as well as work with as a contract grower for other integrated poultry companies, including Pilgrims Pride, and the Coop (VPGC). He also mentions Cargill and Tyson.

Restricted by donor.

Conditions Governing Use:

The copyright interests in this collection have been transferred to the James Madison University Special Collections Library. For more information, contact the Special Collections Library Reference Desk (library-special@jmu.edu).

Transcript and supporting documents, March 7, 2007 box 1 folder 26
Original CD, March 7, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-026
Anonymous Male, interviewed by Chelsea Hersch, April 19, 2007

Records an interview with an unnamed narrator in the Shenandoah Valley, who discusses his work as a poultry processing employee with over thirteen years of experience in the poultry business. The narrator immigrated to the United States from Mexico when he was seventeen years old, and eventually settled in Harrisonburg, Virginia. He discusses his work experience at Cargill poultry plant in Dayton, Virginia, and discusses topics such as machine safety, benefits and insurance, and work on the assembly line.

Open for research. The narrator was not named, at the request of the narrator.

Conditions Governing Use:

The copyright interests in this collection have been transferred to the James Madison University Special Collections Library. For more information, contact the Special Collections Library Reference Desk (library-special@jmu.edu).

Transcript and supporting documents, April 19, 2007 box 1 folder 27
Original CD, April 19, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-027
Preservation master, April 19, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA029-CD-099
Arefaine, MicKnai, interviewed by Senay Gebremedhin, April 24, 2009

Records an interview with McKnai Arefaine, of Harrisonburg, Virginia. Topics discussed include Arefaine's parents' experiences as refugees, growing up in Harrisonburg, racism, the Tigray language, Ethiopian food, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the Ethiopian American community in Washington DC, experiences serving as a translater, and her family and friendships.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 24, 2009 box 1 folder 28
Original CD, April 24, 2009
Blakey, Barbara, interviewed by Kristy Kendall, February 23, 2008

Barbara Blakey discusses her life in Harrisonburg, Virginia. Blakey recalls teaching high school business and English classes at the Lucy Simms School, in Harrisonburg; her work in the NAACP; the advent of public housing in the Shenandoah Valley; and the impact of integration on education in this area.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

The copyright interests in this collection have been transferred to the James Madison University Special Collections Library. For more information, contact the Special Collections Library Reference Desk (library-special@jmu.edu).

Transcript and supporting documents, February 23, 2008 box 1 folder 29
Original CD, February 23, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-029
Preservation master, February 23, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-099
Branham, Kenny, interviewed by Joseph Gregory, March 6, 2006

Kenneth Branham, Chief of the Monacan Indian Nation in Amherst County, Virginia discusses growing up in Amherst, Virginia. Topics include his personal history and education; the Racial Integrity Act of 1924; Walter Plecker and the eugenics movement in Virginia; his family's work in the apple orchards in Amherst County; sweat lodges and his involvement at church; and his efforts to gain federal recognition of the Monacan Indian Nation.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 6, 2006 box 1 folder 30
Original CD, March 6, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-030
Preservation master, March 6, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-095
Bruce, David William and Theresa Anne, interviewed by Lara Mack, 2006-11-16T00:00:00.000

David William Bruce and Teresa Anne Bruce, poultry farmers in Harrisonburg, Virginia, discuss topics such as changes in turkey growing from the 1970s; working for public vs. privately owned companies and day-to-day tasks of turkey farming; technological changes in farming; methods of turkey growing; costs of growing; the feed industry; and poultry diseases. They discuss their work with Wampler Foods (WLR) and Pilgrims Pride, and their decision to grow toms (male turkeys) for meat consumpution for Virginia Poultry Grower's Cooperative (VPGC).

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, 2006-11-16T00:00:00.000 box 1 folder 31
Preservation master, 2006-11-16T00:00:00.000 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-093
Bumbaugh, Edwin C., interviewed by Theodore Dubinsky, April 16, 2008

Records an interview with Edwin C. Bumbaugh, Executive Director of the Harrisonburg Downtown Renaissance, in Harrisonburg, Virginia. Bumbaugh discusses various topics including the history of downtown Harrisonburg; the designation of Harrisonburg as a "regional shopping center"; specific businesses and department stores in Harrisonburg, including the Strand Theater and the Virginia Theater, Ney department store, and others; the history of parades and events hosted in downtown Harrisonburg; the impact of the "urban renewal" movement in Harrisonburg; the influence of Cloverleaf Shopping Center and Valley Mall on downtown commerce; annexations of county land; urbanization; affordable housing; and the impact of James Madison University on downtown Harrisonburg.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 16, 2008 box 1 folder 32
Preservation master, April 16, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-093
Burruss, William T., interviewed by Jessica Woodward, March 5, 2007

Records an interview with William T. Burruss, who worked as a turkey farmer in the 1980s and 1990s for Rocco and Cargill. Burruss discusses relationships with supervising companies; the financial side of the poultry farming, including getting loans for improvements; Avian flu and poultry diseases; the challenges of waste disposal; and complying with environmental regulations.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 5, 2007 box 1 folder 33
Original CD, March 5, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-031
Preservation master, March 5, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-097
Capps, John, interviewed by Tiffany Cole, April 11, 2009

John Capps of Harrisonburg Virginia, discusses his experience serving in the first Persian Gulf War, his involvement with the VFW post in Harrisonburg, taking classes and vocational training, his work as a correctional officer, his experiences raising two children, and goals for his family. Capps also discusses the time he lived at the Valley Mission, a transitional homeless shelter, in Harrisonburg, Virginia. He discusses the rules and social environment at the Valley Mission, and homelessness in Harrisonburg.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 11, 2009 box 1 folder 34
Original CD, April 11, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-032
Preservation master, April 11, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-095
Carr, Norman, interviewed by Matthew Caggin, March 18, 2009

Records an interview with Norman Carr of Rockingham County, an automechanic who opened the auto repair shop, Strictly Volvos, in Harrisonburg, Virginia. Carr discusses various topics including his personal history and education, personal physical injuries, changes in the car repair industry, certification and testing requirements for mechanics, his own political views about immigration and taxes, his daughter's career in business. Carr discusses crime in Harrisonburg, including an unsolved murder that took place at the L&S Diner in Harrisonburg, and the murder of Ernie James in 1997.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 18, 2009 box 2 folder 1
Original CD, March 18, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-033
Preservation master, March 18, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA029-CD-096
Coffman, David, interviewed by Dan Kerr and members of the class, April 7, 2008

Records an interview with David Coffman of Coffman Breeder Farm, who discusses his work as a poultry farmer and chicken grower for Perdue in Rockingham County, Virginia. Coffman discusses the history of poultry breeding in Rockingham County; the economic impact, costs, equipment of being a contract grower vs. an independent grower; breeding and the various breeds grown by different companies; light, heat, fuel and energy systems; coops and confinement houses; automation and the impact of automation on labor; the Chesapeake Bay and runoff concerns; poultry litter disposal and waste management; mice and rodent prevention; poultry nutrition; egg care, including vaccinating eggs and the differences between eggs for breeding and consumption; various poultry companies, including Rocco, Cargill, Tyson, Georgia, and others; PETA and regulations.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 7, 2008 box 2 folder 2
Preservation master, April 7, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-093
Custer, Elizabeth (Libby), inverviewed by Laura Hawxhurst, November 10, 2008

Records an interview with Elizabeth (Libby) Custer, who worked for the Wampler Foods, later Wampler-Longacre-Rockingham (WLR), until her retirement in the 1990s. Custer discusses growing up on the family farm, the company's beginnings in 1947, her various jobs at Wampler, taking the company public, a takeover attempt by Tyson, and the eventual sale to Pilgrim's Pride. She also discusses the poultry business generally, including changes in dressing and processing turkeys, government regulations, labor and unions, turkey breeding, and relationships with other companies such as Borden and Rocco.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, November 10, 2008 box 2 folder 3
Original CD, November 10, 2008
Preservation master, November 10, 2008
Deavers, Mark, interviewed by Richard Jones, December 7, 2006

Records and interview with Mark Deavers of Rockingham county, who works as a poultry litter distributor and soybean farmer. Deavers discusses various aspects of the poultry litter business, including the differences between commercial and organic frertilizers, fertilizer storage buildings, fire risk, the impact of fuel prices and commercial nitrogen on his business, various techniques for spreading litter, and his relationships with farmers from Timberville, Harrisonburg and Broadway area. Deavers discusses the Chesapeake Bay Foundation regulations, fertilizer run-off and leaching, complying with state regulations and the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ).

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

The copyright interests in this collection have been transferred to the James Madison University Special Collections Library. For more information, contact the Special Collections Library Reference Desk (library-special@jmu.edu).

Transcript and supporting documents, December 7, 2006 box 2 folder 4
Preservation master, December 7, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-099
Elliott, Carolyn Sue, interviewed by Joseph Gregory, March 25, 2006

Records an interview with Carolyn Sue Elliot, member of the Monacan Indian Nation of Amherst County, Virginia. Elliot discusses her family working in the apple orchards, experiences discrimination within the public school and at Sweet Briar College, the news coverage when members of the Monacan Indian Nation started to attend public schools, and the stigma associated with Monacan last names. Elliot discusses Walter Plecker and the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, Monacan relations with the Catawba, Iroquis Nation and Sioux, research being done on Monacan culture, sweat lodges, and efforts to recieve federal recognition.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 25, 2006 box 2 folder 5
Original CD, March 25, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-035
Preservation master, March 25, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-092
Flory, Gary, interviewed by Adam Regula, November 13, 2006

Records an interview with Gary Flory, who works for the Valley Regional Office of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). Flory discusses issuing permits, and inspection of agricultural operations, including poultry operations. He discusses nutrient management plans, nutrient analysis of poultry waste, record keeping on litter transfer, water quality assessment, changes in waste management regulations during his tenure, eutrophication, phytase in poultry feed, the impact of various poultry management practices on phosphorous levels in the litter, hormone use in poultry, and other environmental concerns related to pollutants and waste management.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, November 13, 2006 box 2 folder 6
Original CD, November 13, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-036
Preservation master, November 13, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-094
Flory, Gary, interviewed by Ian Hallada, November 5, 2008

Records an interview with Gary Flory, who works for the Valley Regional Office of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). Flory discusses his childhood in Ohio, his education, and previous employment as an environmental consultant. Flory discusses his work as a water compliance manager overseeing waste water treatment plants and inspecting farms and poultry operations. Flory discusses the use of poultry litter as a slow-release fertilizer in the Shenandoah Valley, specifically the issue of excess nutrients in ground water and waterways. He also discusses disposal methods of dead birds, the use of phytase in feed, fish kills in the Shenandoah Valley, the inspection process, bacteria in poultry litter. Flory discusses the work of the Department of Conservation Recreation, and the other groups involved in environmental issues related to the poulty industry.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, November 5, 2008 box 2 folder 7
Original CD, November 5, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-037
Preservation master, November 5, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-094
Good, Brain, interviewed by Richard F. Jones, December 4, 2006

Records an interview with Brian Good of Broadway, Virginia, who works as a poultry litter distributor in the Shenandoah Valley. Good discusses his business operation, fuel prices and litter demand, the use of bedding on litter, storage facilities, and other aspects of the business.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, December 4, 2006 box 2 folder 8
Original CD, December 4, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-038
Preservation master, December 4, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-092
Grower 1, interviewed by Trey VanHout, November 22, 2006

Records an interview with an anonymous poultry farmer in the Harrisonburg area. The turkey grower discusses best practice and guidelines for poultry management, zoning laws, daily tasks on the farm, working with buyers, poultry diseases and prevention, nutri-management control plans, waste management, and his relationship with area poultry processing companies such as Rocco and George's.

Restricted by donor.

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, November 22, 2006 box 2 folder 9
Original CD, November 22, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-039
Preservation master, November 22, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-098
Grower 2, interviewed by John Profita, April 1, 2007

Records an interview with an anonymous turkey farmer in Harrisonburg, Virginia. The grower discusses his childhood involvement with 4H and FFA, debt load and other challenges related to the business of farming, and contracts with poultry suppliers. He discusses workplace injuries, poultry feed, poultry breeding and farm mechinization. The grower discusses his involvement with the Virginia Poultry Growers Cooperative (VPGC) and his work with various agriculture-promoting organizations like the Young Farmers Organization.

Restricted by donor.

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 1, 2007 box 2 folder 10
Preservation master, April 1, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-098
Hadley, George, interviewed by Richard F. Jones, April 15, 2007

Records an interview with George Haldey, poultry grower in Rockingham County. Haldey discusses how he got into the poultry business after working as a merchant seaman, a history teacher and a duck farmer. He discusses poultry diseases such as avian flu, his thoughts on diversified farming, his contracts with Rocco and George's, and vertically integrated food production.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 15, 2007 box 2 folder 11
Original CD, April 15, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-040
Preservation master, April 15, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-094
Hall, John, interviewed by Meryl Rubin, November 10, 2006

Records an interview with John Hall, feed mill operator at Southern States Feed Mill, a farmer-owned operation with a store in Harrisonburg, Virginia. He discusses topics such as feed suppliers, genetic engineering, nutrient blends and formulas, poultry feed, the use of additives and medications, government regulations and compliance, logistics, safety hazards and precautions, machine maintenance, and his ideas about the future of the feed industry.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, November 10, 2006 box 2 folder 12
Original CD, November 10, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-041
Preservation master, November 10, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-095
Hall, John and Charles Smith, interviewed by Dan Kerr and class, February 5, 2008

Records an interview with John Hall and Charlie Smith, employees at Southern States Feed Mill, who discuss their business in relation to the poultry industry in Rockingham County. Topics include automation, medicines and ingredients within the feed mixes, various competitors, and feed and nutrient research.

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Audio index, February 5, 2008 box 2 folder 13
Preservation master, February 5, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-095
Hamilton Duff, Victoria, interviewed by Joseph Gregory, March 9, 2006

Records an interview with Virginia Hamilton Duff, who discusses her life experiences in the Amherst, Virginia area. Topics include Duff's childhood, washing and cooking for her family and her work in the orchards at a young age. She discusses her experiences raising children, milking cows, working as a caregiver and cleaner, racial discrimination, attending powwows, her family and grandchildren, and her identity as a member of the Monacan Indian Nation. Duff is noted elsewhere as Virginia Duff Hamilton.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 9, 2006 box 2 folder 14
Original CD, March 9, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-042
Preservation master, March 9, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-097
Hammond, Marshall, interviewed by Jeffrey Joyce, November 17, 2008

Records an interview with Marshall Hammond, member of the Shenandoah Valley Bike Coalition, in Harrisonburg, Virginia. Hammond discusses his work as an industrial trainer for Merck & Co. in Elkton, Virginia. Hammond recalls his childhood experiences biking in Martinsburg, West Virginia and ways he incorporates cycling into his daily life. He discusses the increase of bicycle clubs, bike paths and bicycle shops in this area; the role that the Harrisonburg and Rockingham Regional Pedestrian and Bike Committee has played in increasing the number of bike lanes; and the creation of the Rocktown Trails, in Harrisonburg, Virginia.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, November 17, 2008 box 2 folder 15
Original CD, November 17, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-043
Preservation master, November 17, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-096
Harris, Kendall, interviewed by Matthew Neese, April 20, 2007

Records an interview with Kendall Harris, a farmer in Christiansburg, Virginia, who sells pasture-raised chickens and grassfed beef. He discusses his daily work, including maintenance, fencing, butchering by hand, dealing with predators, and organic certification. He notes in the influence of farmer and author, Joel Salatin, on his business model.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 20, 2007 box 2 folder 16
Original CD, April 20, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-044
Preservation master, April 20, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-095
Hearl, Lacy, interviewed by Joseph Gregory, March 7, 2006

Records an interview with Lacy Branham Hearl, a member of the Monacan Indian Nation, living in Amherst County, Virginia. Topics include the Amherst Mission school; work in the apple orchards at age eleven; discrimination she experienced as a teenager; social stigma related to last names; "Plecker's Rule," referring to Walter Plecker, who drafted the Racial Integrity Act of 1924 and work with lawyers to correct the racial classification on their birth certificates; family history and childhood memories; attending a public school; and efforts to learn more about her history.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 7, 2006 box 2 folder 17
Original CD, March 7, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-045
Preservation master, March 7, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-095
Hernandez, Sandy and Jacinto, interviewed by Claire Moore, December 2, 2005

Records an interview with Sandy and Jacinto Hernandez, of Harrisonburg, Virginia, who discuss immigration in Harrisonburg and their work with Alianza, associated with Covenant Presbyterian Church in Harrisonburg. They discuss their personal histories; various immigrant groups in Harrisonburg; Skyline Literacy and Dayton Learning Center; access to health insurance and health care; the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce; and ideas about integration.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, December 2, 2005 box 2 folder 18
Original CD, December 2, 2005 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-046
Preservation master, December 2, 2005 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-097
Johnson, Wilhelmina, interviewed by Kristie Kendall, March 14, 2008

Records an interview with Wilhemena Johnson, who discusses her life in Harrisonburg, Virginia. Johnson, who graduated from the Lucy Simms School in Harrisonburg, Virginia in 1947, discusses her subsequent work at the Harrisonburg/Rockingham Department of Social Services, and involvement with various social services organizations in Harrisonburg. Johnson recalls public school integration in Harrisonburg; the "urban renewal" movement in the 1950s-1960s and its the impact on the black community in Harrisonburg; public housing; the construction of the John Wesley Methodist Church on Sterling Street, in Harrisonburg; segregation in Harrisonburg area businesses in the 1930s and 1940s; the role the Lucy Simms school played in organizations in the community; black-owned businesses in Harrisonburg; and various places of business in Harrisonburg that are no longer in operation. She discusses various families in Harrisonburg, including the Bundy, Newman, Tolliver, Wilson, Harper, Curry, Webb, and Ney families.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 14, 2008 box 2 folder 19
Preservation master, March 14, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-097
Keck, Darrel and Supervisor of Sales, interviewed by Helen Murray, December 8, 2006

Records an interview with Darrel Keck, Executive Director of Sales and Marketing for the Virginia operation of George's, Inc., and an anonymous Supervisor of the Inside Sales Group for Cargill, in Harrisonburg, Virginia. They discuss various aspects of the poultry processing industry, including their suppliers, the relationship to the pet food industry and work with rendering operations, marketing, transportation and distribution costs, international shipping, contracts with poultry growers, avian flu and poultry disease, PETA, product brands including Shady Brook Farms, future products, and their views of future of the poultry industry in Rockingham County. They discuss the acquisition of Rocco, Inc. by Cargill in 2001.

Restricted by donor.

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, December 8, 2006 box 2 folder 20
Preservation master, December 8, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-098
Kiracofe, Jeffrey, interviewed by James Dennis, March 13, 2009

Records an interview with Jeffrey Kiracofe, a turkey grower and farmer in Bridgewater, Virginia. Topics include poultry diseases like avian flu and cholera, labor issues, farm tools, poultry feed and nutrition, commodities pricing, the impact of fuel prices on his business, litter disposal and poultry waste, competition with other poultry farmers, egg gathering, artificial insemination, sanitation, bio-security, the impact of poultry dust on human health, and contract farming. Kiracofe discusses various breeds, including Nicholas, Hybrid and British United Turkey. He also discusses working with Wampler Longacre (WLR), Pilgrim's Pride, the Virginia Poultry Growers Cooperative (VPGC), and Ag Forte.

For Special Collections Reading Room use only.

Conditions Governing Use:

The copyright interests in this collection have been transferred to the James Madison University Special Collections Library. For more information, contact the Special Collections Library Reference Desk (library-special@jmu.edu).

Transcript and supporting documents, March 13, 2009 box 2 folder 21
Original CD, March 13, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-047
Preservation master, March 13, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-099
Kiracofe, Vallie, interviewed by James Dennis, April 3, 2009

Records an interview with Vallie Kiracofe who discusses her personal history working on a farm in Bridgewater, Virginia. Kiracoffe recalls her childhood on a farm in the 1920s and 1930s, when her father worked at the lumber mill, raised chickens and sold eggs for a living. She recalls raising four children on a small farm; gardening, cooking, canning and preserving food; cutting firewood for fuel; washing clothes by hand; attending church; selling animals at a stock sale in Harrisonburg; relationships with neighboring farmers; her three sons who live nearby, and their work in the cattle business and poultry business. Kiracofe's grandson Jeffrey Kiracofe and his spouse, Christine were also present during the interview.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

The copyright interests in this collection have been transferred to the James Madison University Special Collections Library. For more information, contact the Special Collections Library Reference Desk (library-special@jmu.edu).

Transcript and supporting documents, April 3, 2009 box 2 folder 22
Original CD, April 3, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-048
Preservation master, April 3, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA029-CD-099
Layman, Allen, interviewed by Stephen Coords, March 25, 2009

Records an interview with Allen Layman, an employee of Western State Hospital in Staunton, Virginia, for over 30 years. Layman discusses various positions he has held at Western State Hospital, and his personal views on mental health care and mental health services in this area. Layman discusses his work as president of the local union, his involvement with the Staunton NAACP, and activism related to LGBTQ rights, immigration and healthcare.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 25, 2009 box 2 folder 23
Original CD, March 25, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-049
Preservation master, March 25, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-092
Lohr, Matthew, interviewed by Matthew Lohr, April 12, 2007

Records an interview with Matthew Lohr, part-owner of Valley Pike Farm, a multi-generational family farm in Broadway, Virginia. Lohr discusses poultry farming, changing relationships with the major poultry companies, farm safety, dealing with avian flu and poultry diseases, farm credits, their beef and pumpkin-patch businesses, and his work as a representative of the 26th district on the Virginia House of Delegates.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 12, 2007 box 2 folder 24
Original CD, April 12, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-051
Preservation master, April 12, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-096
Luebben, Carl, interviewed by John Erdos, October 24, 2008

Records an interview with Carl Luebben, an inspector working for the USDA Service Center and District Office in Harrionburg Virginia. Luebben discusses changes in agriculture in the region, and problems associated with increasing concentrations of poultry and livestock in Rockinham County. He discusses the history of fertilizer composition and fertilizer-use in the Shenandoah Valley, the relationship between fertilizer use and soil quality; no-till agriculture; the mergers of various fertilizer companies; hardpan and soil compaction; and the Farm Bureau Federation. Luebben dicusses the discovery of high levels of coliform and other pollutants in the Muddy Creek Watershed during the mid-1990s, and efforts to address those concerns with area farmers. Luebben discusses his experiences working with Mennonite and Old Order Mennonite farmers.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, October 24, 2008 box 2 folder 25
Original CD, October 24, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-052
Preservation master, October 24, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-092
Manka, John, interviewed by Tyler Maupin, September 28, 2008

Records an interview with John Manka, a park ranger at the Shenandoah National Park. Manka discusses the history and creation of the park. He discusses the diaplacement of and relocation of park residents, various populated areas in the park, such as Nickelson Hollow area and Big Meadows, the establishment of relocation centers for displaced people, and various livelihoods including tanbarking, orchards and fruit-trees, raising livestock, and moonshining. Other topics include his efforts to learn more about the history of the Monacan Nation;the history of Skyline Drive and the work of the Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC); the mission schools built by the Episcopal church in the Blue Ridge Mountains; various ecological topics, including native plants, efforts to establish the chestnut, the threat of fires and blights, invasive species, and efforts to re-introduce certain wildlife. He discuses the impact of tourism on the park, funding, and personal reflections about the work of being a park ranger.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, September 28, 2008 box 2 folder 26
Original CD, September 28, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-053
Preservation master, September 28, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-095
Mason, James L., interviewed by Daniel Kerr and HIST 337 Class, February 26, 2008

Records an interview with James L. Mason, President of the Virginia Poultry Growers Cooperative, and an unidentified VPGC employee, conducted by Daniel Kerr and students in the HIST 337 class. Mason gives an overview of the turkey industry in the Shenandoah Valley, starting in the 1950s, and discusses various name changes, acquisitions and significant events in the history of the Virginia Poultry Growers Cooperative (VPGC). Mason addresses topics such as securing financing; various turkey breeds; plant fires at VPGC; product decisions; USDA audits and product recalls; VPGC employee and labor issues, such as demographic changes over time, retention rates and unionization; relationships with growers, competitors; the impact of feed and energy prices on their business.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, February 26, 2008 box 2 folder 27
Preservation master, February 26, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-094
May, Betty and Martha Ringwald, interviewed by Heather Crabtree, March 16, 2007

Records an interview with Betty May, a Harrisonburg resident who discusses her twenty-three year career in the poultry industry. May discusses various topics including employment at the Cargill plant, changing demographics of her co-workers, mechinization, breaks, pay, physical pain from the work, uniform and dress code, and communicating with others. Betty May is deaf and the interview occurred with interpreter, Martha Ringwald.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 16, 2007 box 2 folder 28
Original CD, March 16, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-054
Original CD, March 16, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-055
Preservation master, March 16, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-092
Mehegan, James O., interviewed by John Profita, March 16, 2007

Records an interview with James O. Mehegen, poultry grower and breeder in Harrisonburg, Virginia. Mehegen owns a breeder facility, and contracts with George's (formerly Rocco) to raise chickens; working as a child on his dad's poultry farm; the labor demands of raising breeders vs. broilers; record-keeping responsibilities; composting dead birds; collecting eggs; poultry feed and fuel demands; farm safety; changes in technology; difficulties working with integrated poultry companies; and his Christian faith.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 16, 2007 box 2 folder 29
Original CD, March 16, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-056
Preservation master, March 16, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-093
Metzler, Martha Garibay, interviewed by Abigail Eisley, April 9 and 13, 2009

Records an interview with Martha Garibay Metzler, who lives in Harrisonburg, Virginia. Topics include her childhood and education in Mexico City; her work at the hospital at Emory University; her wedding and marriage; connections to Our Community Place, in Harrisonburg (OCP); experiences making friends within the Harrisonburg community; training to be a CNA, work as an interpreter, and volunteer positions; stresses she faces; her experiences with mental illness; and relationships with her children.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 9 and 13, 2009 box 2 folder 30
Original CD, April 9 and 13, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-057
Michael, Donald, interviewed by Sean Maher, November 22, 2008

Records an interview with Donald Michael, who discusses his cattle and poultry business in the Shenandoah Valley. Michael discusses various topics, including poultry litter fertilizer and nutrient management plans; nutritional content of the various grasses and mineral supplements; rotational grazing and erosion; the use of guard animals; contract poultry growing for Georges; embryo transfers and artificial insemination; stockyards and buying and selling cattle; and farm subsidies.

Restricted due to lack of release form.

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, November 22, 2008 box 2 folder 31
Original CD, November 22, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-058
Preservation master, November 22, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-093
Miller, Charles W., interviewed by Tim Van Shaik, April 12, 2007

Records an interview with Charles W. Miller of Bridgewater, Virginia. Miller discusses various topics related to his work in the poultry industry including how poultry growing has changed over time; the transition from free range to confinement houses; the impact of automated waterers and feeders; poultry diseases, including cholera; poultry litter and waste management; composting dead turkeys; hatcheries; turkey breeds, including bronze and white turkeys; involvement with the Shenandoah Valley Gem and Mineral Society in Dayton; decision to grow for the Shenandoah Valley Poultry Growers Cooperative (VPGC), as opposed to Pilgrim's Pride or Cargill; decision to grow for for various companies, including Wampler and Rocco; growout houses; feed; ventilation and the use of fans; complying with regulations; turkey odor and the impact on neighbors; free trade and farm subsidies; his views on imported goods and welfare (SdArch-29-67).

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 12, 2007 box 2 folder 32
Original CD, April 12, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-059
Preservation master, April 12, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-092
Miller, Forrest, interviewed by Mary Catherine Collins, April 3, 2007

Records an interview with William Forrest Miller, of Bridgewater Virginia, and his work as a trucker and farmer on a multi-generational family farm. Discusses his grandfather's orchard and fruit trees, and his father's poultry business; the transition from raising turkeys on free range to confinement houses; his role on the Board of Directors of the Virginia Poultry Growers Cooperative (VPGC); turkey genetics and breeding; poultry diseases, respiratory problems and the avian flu outbreak in 2002; the beginnings of the VPCG; his cattle business, trucking company, and poultry litter business; environmental regulations and water quality; the Chesapeake Bay Foundation; nutri-managment plans; various approaches to fertilizers and fertilizing; and Mennonites who raise poultry on a small-scale.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 3, 2007 box 2 folder 33
Original CD, April 3, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-060
Preservation master, April 3, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-094
Osorio, Rene and Janet, interviewed by Sean Dougherty, December 12, 2006

Records an interview with Jose Osorio, who discusses his life history and work at the Cargill processing plant in Harrionsburg, Virginia. Topics include the work uniform, sanitation, USDA inspections, benefits, health insurance and job security, workplace safety measures, and accidents he has witnessed at the plant. Other topics include the dynamics between line leaders and the line workers, the experience of using an interpreter at work, training programs offered by Cargill, and his decision to move to Harrisonburg. Osorio speaks Spanish, and the interview occurred with an interpreter -- his daughter, Janet Osorio.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, December 12, 2006 box 2 folder 34
Original CD, December 12, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-061
Preservation master, December 12, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-097
Patton, Richard, interviewed by Christina Wulf, November 14, 2008

Records an interview with Richard Patton, Forest Hydrologist at the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests. Patton describes his work doing environmental analysis, water quality monitoring and stream restoration. Patton discusses the history of the North River District geology; acidification from acid rain; filtration capacity of the soil; Switzer Dam as a flood control dam; drinking water reservoirs including Staunton Dam and Elkhorn Dam; Harrisonburg drinking water supply; various flooding events; dam construction; the relationship between the Forest Service and the city of Harriosnburg; reservoir use; George Washington Protection Plan; the impact of tha dam on fisheries and adaquatic life; sedimentation and the impact of sediment size on aquatic life; various waterways in the North River District and their uses; and the impact of timber harvesting on streams.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, November 14, 2008 box 2 folder 35
Original CD, November 14, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-062
Preston, Rob, interviewed by Carole Ryan, October 25, 2006

Records an interview with Rob Preston, a poultry farmer in Harrisonburg, Virginia. He discusses various aspects of turkey farming, including what it's like to be a first-generation farmer; adjusting to environmental changes; litter storage and disposal; transportation provided by the co-op and integrators; automation of fans and ventilation in the turkey houses; biosecurity, poultry diseases, and precautions to prevent cholera outbreaks; changes in turkey growing time; and the shift from raising bronze turkeys to white turkeys.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, October 25, 2006 box 2 folder 36
Original CD, October 25, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-063
Preservation master, October 25, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-097
Processing Worker 1, interviewed by Kerry Gorey, March 16, 2007

Records an interview with an unnamed employee of the Rocco poultry plant in Harrisonburg, Virginia. She describes growing up in Mexico; moving to the United States when she was a teenager; her work in the evisceration department; attending safety meetings; attempts to unionize; challenges related to training; inspections; supervisors; her involvement with the Covenant Prebyterian Church.

Restricted by donor.

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 16, 2007 box 2 folder 37
Original CD, March 16, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-064
Preservation master, March 16, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-098
Randall, Susan, interviewed by Matthew Neese, April 23, 2007

Rrecords an interview with Sue Randall, who farms Elk Run Farm, in Fort Defiance, Virginia. Randall has a 30 acre farm where she raises free-range chickens and Boer goats, and grows vegetables and herbs. Randall describes various farm tasks, including fencing and netting the chickens, cleaning the chicken house, composting, and collecting and cleaning the eggs. She discusses how goats and chickens are good partners, hand-raising her goat, Marlin, and working with her Great Pyranese guard dog.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 23, 2007 box 2 folder 38
Original CD, April 23, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-065
Preservation master, April 23, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-097
Rezai, Osman, interviewed by Dan Brennan, March 20, 2009

Records an interview with Osman Rezai who operates a clothing shop in Harrisonburg, Virginia. Rezain describes his life experiences, including growing up in the Iran and his work for the Kurdish military and humanitarian work; the events that lead to him and his family immigrating to Iraq, Turkey, and finally seeking refugee status in the United States; and the Kurdish community in Harrisonburg, Virginia,

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 20, 2009 box 2 folder 39
Original CD, March 20, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-066
Preservation master, March 20, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA029-CD-097
Royer, Adam, interviewed by Heather Crabtree, April 6, 2007

Records an interview with Adam Royer, who worked for the Wampler poultry plant from 1996 until 2001. Royer describes various topics including INS raids and his views about immigrantion; unionization; employee training procedures; OSHA and USDA visits and inspections; lunch breaks and phone use; and descriptions of various jobs on the processing lines. Royer describes being transferred to the Broadway plant, the work culture, the impact of epilepsy on his work and experiences of living on Social Security Disability Insurance. Royer is married to Samantha Royer (SdArch 29-75).

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 6, 2007 box 2 folder 40
Original CD, April 6, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-067
Preservation master, April 6, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-097
Royer, Samantha, interviewed by Ali Womack, April 17, 2007

Records an interview with Samantha Royer, who worked for Pilgrim's Pride Poultry plant in Harrisonburg, Virginia. Royer discusses variuo stopics including machine maintenance; overtime pay, vacation and benefits; OSHA and workplace safety; the demographics of her coworkers; conflict with co-workers and her concerns about inappropriate behavior; the practice of firing and rehiring at base pay; changes to the company when Wampler (WLR) sold to Pilgrim's Pride; her extended family's involvement with the poultry industry; her views of supervisors and management; and plans for the future. Samantha is married to Adam Royer (SdArch 29-74).

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 17, 2007 box 2 folder 41
Original CD, April 17, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-068
Preservation master, April 17, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-092
Ruvalcaba, Evelio, interviewed by Ali Womack, March 23, 2007

Records an interview with Evelio Ruvalcaba, of Harrisonburg, Virginia, who discusses his life history. Ruvalcaba discusses his childhood in Colotlan, Jalisco, Mexico; working in Odell, Oregon to pick apples; his work at Chili's and a poultry plant in Harrisonburg, Virginia; his family in Mexico; and his views on living in Harrrisonburg. Ruvalcaba describes his work at the poultry plant, including the assembly line, management, advancement, compensation, safety issues, and workplace conflict.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 23, 2007 box 2 folder 42
Original CD, March 23, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-069
Preservation master, March 23, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-094
Salatin, Joel, interviewed by Jessica Silvery, April 21, 2007

Records an interview with Joel Salatin, a farmer and owner of Polyface Farm, in Swoope, Virginia, who discusses his childhood and current work. Topics include his parents' experiences farming in Venezuela; his relationship with the journalist Drew Pearson; selling eggs as a ten-year-old at a market in Staunton; childhood involvement in 4-H; work for the Staunton newspaper in high school; and the beginnings of Polyface farm. Salatin discusses the poultry and meat production, including biosecurity, Marek's disease and chicken health, poultry feed, the decision to not to gain organic certification, benefits of free-range chickens, industrialized food systems, his employees and his commitment to hiring locally, processing chickens on the farm, regulations and testing. He also discusses his views on farmers' ethical and moral obligations, and views on the future of food.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 21, 2007 box 2 folder 43
Original CD, April 21, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-070
Preservation master, April 21, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-095
Sampson, Sarah B., interviewed by Kristy Kendall, February 26, 2008

Records an interview with Sarah B. Sampson, who discusses her experiences living in Harrisonburg. Topics include attending the Lucy Simms School, where she played basketball and other sports; the "urban renewal" movement in Harrisonburg and the impact on the Northeast neighborhood; her mother-in-law's experience of relocating to a development; racism; First Baptist Church and church experiences; the Bundy Boys and school integration. Sampson describes former businesses in Harrisonburg, including stores owned by Joseph and Alfred Neys, Woolworth's, Denton's furniture store, Leggett's, and the Colonnade. She is a member of the the NAACP.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, February 26, 2008 box 2 folder 44
Preservation master, February 26, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-097
Saylor, Justina, interviewed by Ali Womack, April 10, 2007

Records an interview with Justina Saylor of Harrisonburg, Virginia regarding her work at the Cargill Distribution Center. Saylor describes driving a forklift, work in the freezer, hours and overtime work, vehicle training, benefits, demographics of coworkers, management, and shipping, among other topics.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 10, 2007 box 2 folder 45
Original CD, April 10, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-071
Preservation master, April 10, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-095
Sayre, Brent, interviewed by Mary Catherine Collins, March 12, 2007

Records an interview with Brent Sayre, a poultry farmer from Mount Crawford, Virginia. Sayre describes various experiences in the poultry industry, including his family history and education; raising brooder chickens for Rocco, Inc. and later George's; the challenges of being self-employed; poultry housing and ventilation systems; end market buyers and fast food; biosecurity and poultry disease such as avian flu; litter movement and regulations regarding litter disposal and use; Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) initiatives; and competition and relationships with other poultry growers.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 12, 2007 box 2 folder 46
Original CD, March 12, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-072
Preservation master, March 12, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-092
Showalter, Marlan, interviewed by Caitlin Boyer, November 11, 2008

Records an interview with Marlan Showalter, farmer at Portwood Gardens in Dayton, Virginia. Topics include growing up on a multi-generational farm; his father's dairy farm and vegetable farm; Nutrient Film System (NFT) for growing plants hydroponically; his work for a geological survey at Mt. Sidney; the coal furnace and radiator used for heating the greenhouses; harvesting lettuce and selling to Harrisonburg city and Rockingham county schools; acquiring permits for the green houses; zoning laws; hydroponics and aquaponics, and introducing the bermundi fish to hydroponic operation.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, November 11, 2008 box 2 folder 47
Original CD, November 11, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-073
Preservation master, November 11, 2008 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-096
Sites, Debbie, interviewed by Abigail Eisley, March 24, 2009

Records an interview with Debra (Debbie) Sites, of Harrisonburg, Virginia, who discusses her personal history and views on various social services in Harrisonburg. Topcis include past employment, her time living at Our Community Place (OCP) in Harrisonburg; various soup kitchens in the Harrisonburg area; homelessness; experience at the Salvation Army, First Step, Blue House and Harrisonburg and Rockingham Thermal Shelther (HARTS); housing availability in Harrisonburg; disability conpensation, food stamps, and Medicaid; transportation and the bus system in Harrisonburg; involvement of James Madison University students at OCP'; and the Community Services Board (CSB).

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 24, 2009 box 2 folder 48
Original CD, March 24, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-074
Preservation master, March 24, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-093
Stoneburner, Dennis and Robert Huffman, interviewed by Richard F. Jones, April 15, 2007

Records an interview with Dennis Stoneburner, a poultry grower, and Robert Huffman, owner of Glenn Hill Farm in Broadway Virginia, who discuss their involvement in the poultry industry in the Shenandoah Valley. Topics include their multiple businesses in poultry, cattle, bailing hay and selling poultry litter compost; partnering with Tyson to build grow houses in the late 1970s and 1980s; changes in the industry over time; consolidation within the poultry industry and vertical integration; Rocco, Inc. and Wampler; rising cost of fuel, gas, wood shavings and feed; and the "Holly Farms incident" in 1989.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 15, 2007 box 2 folder 49
Original CD, April 15, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-075
Preservation master, April 15, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-093
Strickler, Robert H. (Twig), interviewed by Jessica Woodward, April 23, 2007

Records an interview with Robert "Twig" Strickler, the former CEO of Rocco, Inc., in Harrisonburg, Virginia. Strickler discusses various topics, including his view on the history of turkeys; the origins of contract farming during the Great Depression; his father's decision to invest in a feed mill for poultry feed; becoming the CEO of Rocco at 24 years old; his family's farm and homestead; changes in agribusiness and turkey production over time; the transition from diversified to highly specialized farming; Strickler's wife, Nelsina Lorraine Warren's involvement in the business; Strickler's investment in real estate in downtown Harrisonburg, and forays into glass manufacturing, retail, and the building supply business; and compensation of farmers and growers.

For Special Collections Reading Room use only.

Conditions Governing Use:

The copyright interests in this collection have been transferred to the James Madison University Special Collections Library. For more information, contact the Special Collections Library Reference Desk (library-special@jmu.edu).

Transcript and supporting documents, April 23, 2007 box 3 folder 1
Original CD, April 23, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-076
Swope, Richard, interviewed by Tim Van Schaick, March 7, 2007

Records an interview with Richard Swope, of Dayton Virginia, who discusses his experiences working in the turkey industry for over fifty years. Swope discusses his childhood on a dairy farm in Dayton; work for Wampler Company in the 1950s as a field representative; raising turkeys under contract with Wampler; changes in turkey breeding and genetics; colony houses in the 1950s that used coal or wood heat; automated feeders and ventilation systems; building costs of confinement houses; drugs, diseases, predators, and problems with noise and rodents; tunnel vs. static ventilation; changes in demand for turkey products; turkey mortality and the disposal of dead turkeys; poultry litter and waste management; free range poultry; ethanol movement and fuel prices; and his views of Pilgrim's Pride, the Shenandoah Valley Poultry Growers Cooperative (SVPC), and Cargill.

Restricted due to lack of release form.

Transcript and supporting documents, March 7, 2007 box 3 folder 2
Original CD, March 7, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-077
Preservation master, March 7, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-099
Thomson, Forrest, interviewed by Daniel O'Keefe, November 21, 2006

Records an interview with Forrest Thomson of Harrisonburg, Virginia, who has worked in various jobs in the poultry industry. Thomson describes his decision to study poultry science at Virginia Tech; his job at Wampler Foods as the Assistant Breeder Manager; decision to have his own breeder opation, producing eggs for Wampler Foods, Pilgrims Pride and Ag Forte; producing toms for the Virginia Poultry Growers Cooperative (VPGC); work on the assembly line at Wampler Foods; automation and technology; immigration and labor; a typical day working on the assembly line at a poultry plant; OSHA and regulations, accidents, safety and health concerns; food safety and disease, including avian flu; regulations; and slaughter houses and the humane treatment of animals.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, November 21, 2006 box 3 folder 3
Preservation master, November 21, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-094
VP Sales, interviewed by Matt McDonald, November 17, 2006

Records an interview with the unnamed VP of Sales of the Shenandoah Valley Poultry Growers Cooperative, in Harrisonburg, Virginia, who discusses daily work in production, sales and distribution. Other topics include previous work at Pilgrim's Pride and Cargill; SVPGC decision to sell antibiotic-free, vegetarian-fed turkeys; pricing and contract models with growers and distributors; relationship with the The USA Poultry and Egg Export Council (USAPEEC); controlling processing costs; branding and marketing in different regions of the country; grain prices and concern about the impact of ethanol and corn production; farm bill and agricultural subsidies; and consolidation in the poultry industry, super market chains, and food services.

Restricted by donor.

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, November 17, 2006 box 3 folder 4
Original CD, November 17, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-078
Preservation master, November 17, 2006 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-098
Venable, Mary, interviewed by Kristen Brady, March 22, 2007

Records an interview with Mary N. Venable of Staunton, Virginia, who discusses her personal history and employment at the Perdue poultry plant in Bridgewater, Virginia, from 1998 until 2003. Topics include her work on various production lines; working in the freezer and with frozen meats; relationships with coworkers; OSHA; Spanish-speaking employees at work; supervisors; hourly wages and benefits; mechanization; parties and office celebrations; her retirement; and her role helping friends and neighbors with transportation. Venable also discusses the Booker T. Washington high school in Staunton, various teachers in school, and segregation in Saunton.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 22, 2007 box 3 folder 5
Original CD, March 22, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-079
Preservation master, March 22, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-096
Venable, Mary, interviewed by Terrence Halliburton, April 24, 2007

Records an interview with Mary N. Venable of Staunton, Virginia, who discusses her work experiences in New York City and Bridgewater, Virginia. Venable describes her work for K-Mart in New York City, where she worked in distribution, advertising, shipping, and computing. Venable also discusses her work at Perdue poulty plant, where she worked from 1998 until 2003. Topics include wages and pay rates; working in the cold; working overtime; changing demographics of the employees; retirement plans and 401K plans at Perdue; her decision to retire; unions and labor; prejudice and racism; immigration and voting. She discusses changes she has observed in the Staunton community over time.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 24, 2007 box 3 folder 6
Original CD, April 24, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-080
Original CD, April 24, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-081
Preservation master, April 24, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-096
Vines, James and Laura, interviewed by Dottie Westhafer, March 8, 2007

Records an interview with Jim and Laura Vines, cattle farmers and former poultry growers from Verona, Virginia. Jim Vines discusses topics including buying a 150 acre farm in the Shenandoah Valley in 1978, working for Rocco, Inc. and his relationship with the Strickler family; his work as an electrical engineer and Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO); competition within the poultry industry; stigma associated with being a turkey farmer; challenges of converting poultry houses for other use; investment in cattle and his calf-cow operation. Vines describes various aspects of the poultry business, including diseases; different breeds of toms (male turkeys); the process of packaging chicks for mail delivery; moisture content and heat in the poultry houses; feed and nutrition for poultry; and the rating scale used to rank and pay growers.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 8, 2007 box 3 folder 7
Photographs, 2007 Digital-Materials SdArch029-SET-001
Original CD, March 8, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-082
Preservation master, March 8, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-094
Walker, Jacqueline B., interviewed by Sherri Lee Jones, November 27, 2007

Records in interview with Jacqueline B. Walker, associate professor of History at James Madison University, regarding her work as a turkey grader at the Marvel Poultry Plan, in Harrisonburg, Virginia. Topics include uniform and dress, training by USDA inspectors, working on the conveyor belt, union membership and strikes, her observations about social dynamics at the plant, rules and safety precautions, automation, and her views on Japanese and American approaches to manufacturing and production

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, November 27, 2007 box 3 folder 8
Original CD, November 27, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-083
Preservation master, November 27, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-094
Walker, Jacqueline B., interviewed by Matthew Neese, March 27, 2007

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Partial transcript and supporting documents, March 27, 2007 box 3 folder 9
Preservation master, March 27, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-094
Wampler, Charles W. Jr., interviewed by Jessica Silveri, March 15, 2007 and March 17, 2007

Records an interview with Charles Wampler, Jr. who worked for the Wampler poultry businesses. Topics include his education at Dayton High School and Bridgewater College; work for the Wampler Feed and Seed company; building turkey houses; the family chicken, cattle and feed businesses; contract growing as a business model; different breeds of turkeys, including bronze, Holland, and white; changes in the grow-time for turkeys; poultry diseases, medications, and drugs; the transition from raising turkeys on range to raising them in confinement; vertical integration in the poultry industry; poultry litter and waste disposal; relationship with the other poultry companies; retirement in the 1970s. In a follow-up interview, Wampler discusses the Wampler Feed and Seed Company and changes in poultry nutrition; the contract model for growing turkeys; the formation of Wampler-Longacre and Wampler Foods, Inc.; sale to Pilgrim's Pride; and the Virginia State Poultry Federation.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 15, 2007 and March 17, 2007 box 3 folder 10
Original CD, March 15, 2007 and March 17, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-084
Original CD, March 15, 2007 and March 17, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-085
Preservation master, March 15, 2007 and March 17, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-092
Wampler, Charles W. Jr., interviewed by Dr. Daniel Kerr and Students of HIST-337, January 1, 2008

Records an interview with Charles Wampler, Jr., age 92, who discusses the origins of the Wampler businesses, the history of turkey growing, and his own role in the family business. Topics include recollections of Charles Wampler, Sr. incubating and hatching turkey eggs; the beginnings of the Wampler Feed and Seed Company and then Wampler Foods; business connections to Virginia Tech (Virginia Polytechnic Institute); the Wampler family farm, including raising Angus cattle; his own education and early employment within the poultry industry; work developing the turkey industry in the country of Turkey; The Virginia Poultry Federation and National Turkey Federation; early use of peat moss for turkey litter; mergers and acquisitions, including Pilgrim's Pride and Longeacre; relationship with the Strickler family at Rocco; changes in contracts; the turkey inspection process; purchasing grain and the feed; breeds of turkeys; de-beaking turkeys; the transition from range to confinement; and Wampler's view of organics.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, January 1, 2008 box 3 folder 11
Photographs of Wampler property, 2008 Digital-materials SdArch29-SET-001
Wampler Professional Papers, Scans from ca. 1965, 2008 Digital-materials SdArch29-SET-001
Preservation master, January 1, 2008 Media Cabinet 1
Ware, Mason and Martha, interviewed by Dottie Westhafer, April 2, 2007

Records an interview with Mason Ware and Martha Ware, poultry growers and teachers, from Mt. Solon, Virginia. The Wares discuss growing turkeys under contract for Wampler, and later for Rocco, Inc. They describe a typical work day in their poultry operation; the disposal of dead birds; composting poultry litter; debeaking and declawing the birds; different breeds of turkey; the impact of the Chesapeake Bay Foundation and Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) on their operation; poultry diseases; the decision to grow for Rocco; changes in management at Wampler; rising feed costs; lighting, ventilation and heat in the grow houses; specifications set by the poultry companies such as Wampler and Rocco; and their soil and water supply.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 2, 2007 box 3 folder 12
Original CD, April 2, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-086
Preservation master, April 2, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-096
Weaver, Lefa, interviewed by Heather Crabtree, April 6, 2007

Records an interview with Lefa Weaver, of Harrisonburg Virginia regarding her work in the poultry plants in the Shenandoah Valley. Weaver discusses growing up on a turkey farm, work for the Marvel Poultry plant, stigma associated with being a single parent, her family and grandchildren, work at a hatchery where she burned beaks, clipped nails an vaccinated birds.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 6, 2007 box 3 folder 13
Original CD, April 6, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-087
Preservation master, April 6, 2007 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-096
White, Caleb, interviewed by Stephen Coords, April 19, 2009

Records an interview with Caleb White, a nurse aid at Western State Hospital in Staunton, Virginia. White discusses his family and childhood and his decision to join the Peace Corp, his work as a nurse aid, overtime pay, movies that portray mental illness, and his plans for the future.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, April 19, 2009 box 3 folder 14
Original CD, April 19, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-088
Preservation master, April 19, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-092
Winyan, Keya and Cheryl L. Metz, interviewed by Victoria Edward, April 11, 2009

Records an interview with Keya Winyan of Harrisonburg, Virginia, who discusses her life history. Topics include her name and its meaning; changing ceremonies; her education and subsequent work as a storyteller and teacher; tribal sovereignty; Leonard Peltier; discrimination and stereotyping; plutonium and uranium poisoning in the Cheyenne River; powwows; federal recognition of tribes; the Dawes Records and the Racial Integrity Act of 1924; casinos; eugenics laws in Virginia; the American Indian movement; and the story of "Jumping Mouse."

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

The copyright interests in this collection have been transferred to the James Madison University Special Collections Library. For more information, contact the Special Collections Library Reference Desk (library-special@jmu.edu).

Transcript and supporting documents, April 11, 2009 box 3 folder 15
Original CD, April 11, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-089
Preservation master, April 11, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-099
Wood, Karenne, interviewed by Victoria Edwards, March 3, 2009

Records an interview with Karenne Wood of Charlottesville, Virginia, who discusses her life and work as the Program Director of the Virginia Indian Heritage Program. Topics include her family history; work as an linguistic anthropologist, studying the Monacan language, Tutelo, and Siouxon language; stereotypes of Native peoples; Cherokee in Virginia; media portrayal of Native people; Virginia Standard of Learning in Social Sciences as it relates to Native Peoples; the American Indian Movement; desegregation of schools; Virginia Council on Indians; and the Racial Integrity Act of 1924.

Open for research

Conditions Governing Use:

Public Domain

Transcript and supporting documents, March 3, 2009 box 3 folder 16
Original CD, March 3, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-090
Preservation master, March 3, 2009 Media Cabinet 1 CD SA0029-CD-095

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